Prima Pagina
Chi Siamo
Cronistoria
Presidente
Territorio
Elezioni
Adesioni
Cronistoria


L'utilizzo del documento, o di parte di esso, è consentito citando la fonte

DI SEGUITO E' RIPORTATO UN ELENCO DI INCIDENTI/ESPLOSIONI NUCLEARI, EVENTI CON CAUSE RADIOATTIVE ED ALTRI CORRELATI O CONNESSI. LE ANNOTAZIONI IN ROSSO SONO TRATTE DAL SITO DEL PROGETTO HUMUS ALLA SEGUENTE PAGINA  , DOVE CLICCANDO SUL LUOGO DELL'EVENTO SI HA LA DESCRIZIONE DELLO STESSO. 

I CODICI NUCLEARI

Scala INES ((International Nuclear Event Scale), adottata internazionalmente dall'IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency):
- livello 0 (zero): Deviazione (non significativo per la sicurezza)
- livello 1: Anomalia, con conseguenze praticamente nulle per la popolazione e l'ambiente.
- livello 2: Guasto, con conseguenze sulle persone valutabili in dosi assorbite di radiazioni piuttosto basse 
- livello 3: Guasto grave, con conseguenze sulle persone valutabili in dosi assorbite di radiazioni piuttosto basse 
- livello 4: Incidente senza conseguenze significative all'esterno dell'impianto. Incidente con impatto esterno minore, con esposizione radiologica della popolazione circostante dell'ordine dei limiti prescritti. Guasto significante del nocciolo di un reattore nucleare o barriere protettive, con esposizione fatale di un lavoratore dell'impianto (Windscale -oggi Sellafield-, 1973; Saint-Laurent, 1980)
- livello 5: Incidente con possibili conseguenze all'esterno dell'impianto. Rilascio all'esterno di materiale radioattivo, in quantità radiologicamente equivalente ai valori compresi tra 100 e 1000 Tera-Becquerel (TBq), richiedente una parziale attuazione di pianificate contromisure (Windscale -oggi Sellafield-, 1957; Three Mile Island, 1979)
- livello 6: Incidente grave. Significante rilascio all'esterno di materiale radioattivo, in quantità radiologicamente equivalente a valori compresi fra 1 e 10 PBq di iodio-131, tale da richiedere la completa attuazione di pianificate contromisure facenti parte di un piano di emergenza esterno al fine di limitare gravi effetti sulla salute della popolazione (Mayak, 1957)
- livello 7: Incidente molto grave. Rilascio all'esterno di un impianto di grandi dimensioni di ingenti quantità di materiale radioattivo (maggiori di 10 Peta-Becquerel (PBq) equivalenti di iodio-131) in un'area molto vasta con conseguenti effetti acuti sulla salute della popolazione esposta e conseguenze gravi sull'ambiente (Chernobyl, 1986)

Classificazione del PENTAGONO degli incidenti riguardanti ordigni nucleari:
- Empty quiver (faretra vuota): furto o smarrimento di un ordigno nucleare
- Blunt Sword (spada spuntata): scomparsa di aerei, navi, sottomarini, ecc, trasportanti ordigni nucleari; incidenti a convogli nucleari (codice di gravità correlato al grado di contaminazione ambientale)
- Bent Spear (lancia ricurva): scomparsa di aerei, navi, sottomarini, ecc, trasportanti ordigni nucleari; ; incidenti a convogli nucleari (codice di gravità correlato al grado di contaminazione ambientale)
- Broken Arrow (freccia spezzata): grave rischio di esplosione degli ordigni nucleari (Lakeenheat, 27 luglio 1956; Goldsboro, 24 Gennaio 1961)

LISTA INCIDENTI NUCLEARI E CORRELATI (fino al 1970)

~1896 - Chicago, Illinois, USA: sovraesposizione radiografica A man had a broken ankle x-rayed by a doctor, after which he developed skin injuries eventually requiring amputation of the foot. He later sued the doctor and was awarded $10,000.

~1905 - Washington, Columbia, USA: sovraesposizione radiografica A woman with broken ribs received seven x-rays under a doctor's care, after which she developed skin burns later identified as radiation burns by another doctor. The x-rays were administered over several visits, with skin burns developing on her back five hours after the last x-rays. The woman sued the administering doctor, with the case eventually appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court and decided 7 April 1913 in the doctor's favor in Sweeney v. Erving.

anni 1940/1970 -La sottocomissione del governo degli Stati Uniti denuncia, in un rapporto del 1986, la conduzione di esperimenti su più di 23.000 soggetti in 1.400 differenti città

22 Giugno 1942 - Leipzig, Germania. La pila atomica Leipzig L-IV, sotto la responsabilità di Werner Heisenberg e Robert Dopel, prende fuoco ed esplode. Durante una fase di revisione, dell'aria entra nel cuore del reattore accendendo la polvere d'uranio contenuta. In conseguenza, bolle l'acqua di raffreddamento ed esplode il reattore. Un getto di particelle infiammate di uranio attraversa il laboratorio causando un grave incendio.

1943/1973 - Ricercatori di Harvard e del MIT effettuano delle ricerche su 40 adolescenti maschi minorati mentali. Ai ragazzi viene somministrato cibo contaminato e la ricerca viene pubblicata nelle riviste accademiche

2 Settembre 1944 - Oak Ridge,Tennessee, USA. Un recipiente di esafluoruro di uranio esplode nella sala di trasferimento del laboratorio, uccidendo due persone e ferendone altre tre. Un tubo di vapore esplode ed il vapore si combina con un composto a base di uranio per formare fluoruro di idrogeno, inalato dalle cinque persone.

1945/1998 - Mediterraneo: 114 incidenti con coinvolgimento di una o più navi da guerra. Le tre flotte nucleari che pattugliano il Mediterraneo (USA, Gran Bretagna e Francia) hanno subito rispettivamente 61, 16 e 12 incidenti

1 Febbraio 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In February the USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Indiana (BB-58) collide in the Pacific.

8 Febbraio 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy minesweeper sinks after colliding with a U.S.destroyer of Boston Harbor, Massachusets.

17 Marzo 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A new submarine floods and sinks after a worker opens a torpedo tube at the Boston Navy Yard.

9 Aprile 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Liberty ship loaded with aerial bombs explodes, setting three merchant ships a fire and causing many casualties in Bari harbor, Italy.

9 Aprile 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Allied tanker Nashbulk collides with the U.S. freighterSt. Mihiel in fog off Massachusetts, killing 15.

23 Aprile 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy PE-56 patrol ship sinks after an explosion off Cape Elizabeth, Maine, killing 49.

7 Maggio 1945 - Trinity, Alamogordo, N.Messico (USA). Prima esplosione americana strumentata che condurrà alla Bomba di Trinity. Questa bomba, contenente 1000 curies di materiale fissile, verrà fatta esplodere a 1,5 Km. di distanza dal Ground Zero di Trinity, con lo scopo di testarne le strumentazioni

22 Maggio 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Acetylene torch fumes ignite in the hold of a U.S. Navy attack boat, Todd Shipyards, Brooklyn, killing two

4 Giugno 1945 - Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA: fuoriuscita di massa critica di uranio arricchito

16 luglio 1945 - Trinity, Alamogordo, N.Messico (USA). Seconda esplosione a circa 29 metri d'altezza: crea un depressione di 400 m. di diametro. Il calore della deflagrazione trasforma la sabbia del deserto in un nuovo tipo di roccia cristallina battezzata la "Trinitite".

21 Giugno 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin (CV-13) suffers a boiler room fire at New York Harbor during decoration ceremonies; damage is slight.

6 Agosto 1945 - Hiroshima, Giappone: uso bellico di arma nucleare. Bomba all'uranio (Little Boy) arricchito del peso di 3.900 Kg. ad una altezza di 580 metri. 140.000 morti fino al 1946; 62.000 edifici distrutti Following prolonged strategic bombing of Japan during World War II, first combat use of a nuclear weapon was conducted by the United States. A B-29 bomber dropped a single Mk-I "Little Boy" atomic bomb over Hiroshima, estimated population 285,000. The Mk-I was a gun-type nuclear gravity bomb using highly enriched uranium. It detonated 580 meters over central Hiroshima at 8:15 AM local time with a yield estimated at 15 kilotons. The airburst height was selected to maximize the extent of prompt effects and to minimize residual radiation (fallout). Individuals at ground zero received combined gamma and neutron doses of perhaps 80,000 rad, although flash and blast would have been immediately fatal. The thermal flash produced fires which merged into a firestorm, razing much of the city. Flash, blast, and prompt radiation killed most people within 1.5 km of ground zero; immediate fatalities were generally from flash and blast injuries, with many otherwise injured and uninjured dying of fatal prompt radiation doses over the following weeks and months. Small numbers of people were injured by residual radiations (neutron-induced radioactivity and residual material from the weapon). 
On the day of the bombing, an estimated 348,000 people were in Hiroshima, including 265,000 Japanese residents, 20,000 Korean residents, 12,000 conscripted Japanese workers, 3,000 conscripted Korean workers, 48,000 Japanese soldiers, and a small number of prisoners of war. Casualty figures are uncertain, despite many surveys (some figures presented here are extrapolated from partial surveys). Among civilians, possibly 44,000 to 59,000 were killed the day of the bombing, with another 17,000 missing. Subsequent deaths include about 25,000 through the end of August 1945, 9,000 in September 1945, 2,000 in October-December 1945, and 2,500 in 1946. Many of these subsequent deaths involved radiation injuries. Deaths among survivors after 1946 include greater fractions from natural causes. Less information is available regarding military fatalites, but at least 9,000 soldiers died through the end of 1946. The estimated 130,000 fatalities to 1950 include about 111,000 Japanese civilians, 12,000 Japanese soldiers, and 6,500 Koreans. After 1950, deaths attributed to radiation include about 60 leukaemia deaths, 300 other cancer deaths, and 145 non-cancer deaths. New cases of leukaemia peaked in 1951. 
Those injured in the bombing numbered (through August 1946) 30,500 severely injured and 48,600 slightly injured. These figures do not include a possible 7,000 injuries among military personnel. Of 2,160 medical personnel in Hiroshima at the time of the bombing, 1,980 were killed or injured. Emergency response was supported by the arrival of about 3,270 medical personnel from surrounding areas and other parts of Japan, along with another 2,910 relief workers. An additional 40,000 to 60,000 are registered as having entered Hiroshima shortly after the bombing. Survivor registries include 2,300 individuals exposed in utero. Studies suggest that excess miscarriages and fetal deaths numbered in the dozens, and excess infant deaths (for those exposed in utero) also in the dozens. About 45 cases of microcephaly are known among those exposed in utero, including at least 15 with mental retardation. 
Portions of Hiroshima with little or no damage were continuously inhabited, and the city was rebuilt. Hiroshima reattained its pre-attack population by 1954 and had a population of 1,066,000 in 1992.

9 Agosto 1945 - Nagasaki, Giappone: uso bellico di arma nucleare. Bomba al plutonio (Fat Man) del peso di 4.050 Kg. ad una altezza di circa 500 metri: ~73.884 morti a fine 1945 Following prolonged strategic bombing of Japan during World War II, the United States conducted the second combat use of a nuclear weapon (following the attack on Hiroshima 3 days earlier). A B-29 bomber dropped a single Mk-II "Fat Man" atomic bomb over Nagasaki, estimated population 240,000. The Mk-II was an implosion design nuclear gravity bomb using plutonium. The primary target city, Kokura, had been covered by clouds, as was Nagasaki (the secondary target) when the bomber arrived. The bomb was dropped through a gap in the cloud cover over a point somewhat displaced from the city center. It detonated 500 meters over Nagasaki at 11:02 AM local time with a yield estimated at 21 kilotons. The airburst height was selected to maximize the extent of prompt effects and to minimize residual radiation (fallout). Individuals at ground zero received combined gamma and neutron doses of perhaps 200,000 rad, although flash and blast would have been immediately fatal. The thermal flash produced fires which swept through much of the city. Flash, blast, and prompt radiation killed most people within 1.5 km of ground zero; immediate fatalities were generally from flash and blast injuries, with many otherwise injured and uninjured dying of fatal prompt radiation doses over the following weeks and months. Small numbers of people were injured by residual radiations (neutron-induced radioactivity and residual material from the weapon). 
On the day of the bombing, an estimated 263,000 were in Nagasaki, including 240,000 Japanese residents, 10,000 Korean residents, 2,500 conscripted Korean workers, 9,000 Japanese soldiers, 600 conscripted Chinese workers, and 400 prisoners of war. Casualty figures are uncertain, despite many surveys (some figures presented here are extrapolated from partial surveys). Estimated fatalities are 70,000 (various published estimates range from 22,000 to 74,000), including 2,000 Koreans and at least 100 POWs. After 1950, deaths attributed to radiation include about 35 leukaemia deaths, 175 other cancer deaths, and 85 non-cancer deaths. New cases of leukaemia peaked in 1952. 
Those injured in the bombing numbered 74,900 (through December 1945). Thousands of injured survivors were transported by train and other means to neighboring cities. From 10,000 to 30,000 are registered as having entered Nagasaki shortly after the bombing. Survivor registries include 1,600 individuals exposed in utero. 
Japan surrendered three days after the bombing, ending World War II. Portions of Nagasaki with little or no damage were continously inhabited, and the city was rebuilt. Nagasaki reattained its pre-attack population by 1954 and had a population of 441,000 in 1992.

11 Agosto 1945 - Corea. Due giorni dopo la bomba atomica di Nagasaki, gli scienziati giapponesi di stanza a Konan (il maggiore complesso industriale sotto il controllo nipponico) ed ignari della decisione presa dall'imperatore di arrendersi evitando ulteriore morte e devastazione, eseguono un test nucleare: il lancio partì dal bacino di Konan, fu guidato nel mare del Giappone per entrare nel porto di una piccolissima isola. Per diversi giorni relitti di imbarcazioni e altre vecchie navi furono portate sull'isola che era talmente piccola da non risultare su molte mappe. I pochi abitanti furono evacuati. Venti miglia dall'isola gli osservatori aspettavano e pregavano che gli assidui sforzi avrebbero prodotto il risultato che tanto speravano: una forza di distruzione enorme da poter usare nell'autunno sulle forze alleate in procinto di un'invasione. Il risultato fu sorprendente: sotto la nube radioattiva le imbarcazioni erano affondate o bruciavano mentre della vegetazione sulle colline ne rimaneva solo le ceneri. Un fungo atomico che probabilmente era molto simile a quello di Hiroshima e Nagasaki. Ma tutto fu inutile per la presa di posizione dell'imperatore di cessare i combattimenti. Peranto, una volta a conoscenza dell'imminente resa, gli scienziati giapponesi si diedero da fare per distruggere tutti i loro documenti nonche' tutto l'equipaggiamento e strumentazioni possibili (incluse altre bombe atomiche quasi completate) perche' i russi ormai avanzavano verso il complesso di Konan dalle montagne nel nord della Corea. Tutta l'apparecchiatura non distrutta finì in Russia assieme agli scienziati che furono torturati, interrogati e cancellati dalle pagine della storia

21 Agosto 1945 - Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA: criticità di incidente con assemblaggio di plutonio (contaminato lo scienziato Harry K. Daghlian, Jr). Harry K. Daghlian crea accidentalmente una massa subcritica, lasciando cadere un mattone di carburo di tungsteno su un nucleo di plutonio. Lo scienziato rimuove subito il mattone, ma resta fatalmente irradiato. Morirà il 15 settembre. An experimenter was hand-stacking tungsten carbide bricks around a plutonium metal assembly. The plutonium assembly comprised two hemispheres with a total mass of 6.2 kg, just short of (bare) critical mass. While moving a final brick, the experimenter noticed from neutron counters that the final brick would make the assembly supercritical. At this point he accidentally dropped the brick onto the pile, providing sufficent neutron reflection to result in a supercritical power excursion. The experimenter quickly removed the final brick and disassembled the assembly. He sustained a dose of 510 rem and died 28 days later. A nearby Army guard received a dose of 50 rem.

25 Agosto 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A French minesweeper explodes near Marseilles, killing five.

17 Settembre 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy battleship HMS Vanguard is damaged by an explosion at Clydebank, Scotland.

8 Ottobre 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Zodiac suffers an explosion.

12 Ottobre 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy vessel HMS Loch Eriboll sinks after colliding with the U.S. merchant ship Sidney Sharman in the English Channel off Start Point, U.K.

27 Ottobre 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy tug HMS Swarthy sinks in a gale at Spithead, U.K.

1 Novembre 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy shore-liberty boat capsizes in San Francisco Bay, California.

30 Novembre 1945 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Kempenfelt suffers an explosion

22 Gennaio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Cleopatra experiences an engine room explosion.

30 Gennaio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Rhyl runs a drift.

4 Febbraio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The cruiser USS Prinz Eugen (IX-300) collides with a tug on a pre -test run from Boston to Philadelphia.

10 Febbraio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Saga collides with the trawler Girl Lena at night in the English Channel, sinking the Girl Lena.

11 Febbraio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire damages four Royal Navy minesweepers docked at Dover, U.K., threatening the magazine of one.

12 Febbraio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The lend-lease Royal Navy dock landing ship HMS Oceanway is involved in a collision.

18 Febbraio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. tank landing ship suffers an explosion of ammunition in Shanghai, China, killing six and injuring 44.

1 Marzo 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In March the French diesel submarine Orphee explodes in Casablanca, Morocco, killing two.

17 Aprile 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CV-18) runs aground off New Jersey.

1 Maggio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Solar (DE-221) is destroyed by an explosion while unloading ammunition at Earle, New Jersey.

14 Maggio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin (CV-13) leaks carbon dioxide fumes while at the Brooklyn Naval Shipyard, New York, killing two.

21 Maggio 1946 - Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA: criticità di incidente con assemblaggio di plutonio (contaminato lo scienziato Louis Slotin). Il fisico canadese Louis Slotin assembla manualmente una massa critica di plutonio durante una dimostrazione. Il suo apparecchio era costituito da due semi-sfere di plutonio ricoperte da berilio, che poteva essere rimosso lentamente per misurare la criticità. Normalmente le sfere avrebbero dovute essere manipolate da una macchina, ma Slotin lo fece manualmente inserendo le sue dita in fori, come in una palla di bowling. Un certo numero di cuscinetti avrebbe dovuto impedire alle due semi-sfere di cadere, ma li aveva rimossi. Aveva usato un cacciavite per controllare lo scarto fra le due semi-sfere. Ad un certo punto il cacciavite è scivolato e l'insieme è diventato critico. Nessuno dei sette osservatori ha ricevuto una dose mortale, ma Slotin muore il 30 maggio di un avvelenamento massivo, stimato in 1.000 Rads, o 10 Gray. An experimenter was demonstrating techniques to a group using a plutonium assembly. The assembly comprised two hemispheres of plutonium metal, total mass 6.2 kg (just short of bare critical mass). The experimenter had the two hemispheres together, separated by a screwdriver supporting the top hemisphere, when the assembly became supercritical. He separated the assembly within 0.5 seconds. The experimenter received a dose of 2100 rem, from which he died 9 days later. The other individuals in the room received doses of 360, 250, 160, 110, 65, 47, and 37 rem. The individual receiving the second highest dose, a woman, was the only other individual to develop radiation sickness.

30 Maggio 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The flagship USS Estes (AGC-12) is slightly damaged after a collision with the USS Los Angeles (CA-135), off Shanghai, China.

27 Giugno 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Spanish C-4 submarine sinks after colliding with the Spanish destroyer Lepanto off the Balearic Islands, killing the 46 aboard the submarine.

24 Luglio 1946 - Bikini, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico). Test nucleare ad una altezza di 160 metri. Gli abitanti dell'isola vengono momentaneamente evacuati al fine di far svolgere agli americani il loro test.

27 Agosto 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS St. James sinks a tug during firing practice.

24 Settembre 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy tanker HMS Green Ranger is struck by a torpedo during naval firing practice in Portland harbor, U.K. The vessel is struck below the waterline but stays afloat.

6 Novembre 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy launch hits a buoy and capsizes in Portland harbor, U.K.

15 Novembre 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Frank Knox (DD-742) and USS Higbee (DD-806) are damaged after colliding off Oahu, Hawaii.

20 Novembre 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Antietam (CV-36) suffers an explosion at the Hunters Point Navy Yard in San Francisco, killing one and injuring 34.

5 Dicembre 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French submarine 2326, an ex-German U-boat, sinks 20 miles off Toulon in the Mediterranean while carrying out diving tests, killing 21.

13 Dicembre 1946 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Missouri (BB-63) is hit by a star shell during target practice in the North Atlantic.

Anni 1946/1956 - Viene somministrato cibo radioattivo a 19 ragazzi che frequentano la Fernland School per "ritardati mentali" in Massachusetts (farina d'avena e latte arricchiti di ferro e calcio radioattivi).

4 Aprile 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Ernest G. Small (DD-838) runs aground off Block Island, Rhode Island.

15 Aprile 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy battleship HMS Nelson is damaged in a collision with the diesel submarine HMS Sceptre in Portland harbor, U.K.

27 Maggio 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Johnston (DD-821) and the USS Torsk (SS-423) are damaged in a collision off New London, Connecticut.

4 Giugno 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Seneschal suffers an explosion.

12 Giugno 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Valley Forge (CV-45) suffers an explosion at the Philadelphia Naval Base, injuring 17.

1 Luglio 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Italian munitions ship Panigaglia explodes while unloading munitions at Santo Stefano, Sardinia, Italy, killing 68.

2 Luglio 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Aurochs is involved in a collision.

17 Luglio 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Canadian destroyer Micmac is damaged in a collision with the freighter Yarmouth County in Halifax, Nova Scotia, killing five.

29 Settembre 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Douglas H. Fox (DD-779) hits a mine in the Adriatic Sea 18 miles from Trieste, Italy, killing three.

24 Novembre 1947 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The U.S. Army transport Clarksdale Victory is wrecked off Hippa Island near British Columbia, Canada.

18 Febbraio 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A USS Midway (CV-41) launch capsizes off Hyeres, France, killing eight.

23 Febbraio 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Aeneas runs aground and is refloated the same day.

2 Marzo 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Duncan (DD-874) is damaged by an explosion in the Pacific, killing one.

11 Marzo 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Royal Navy firing practice inadvertently places fishermen under fire off Walton-on-the-Naze, U.K.

19 Aprile 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Navy drydock O'Boyle No. 24 sinks off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

1 Giugno 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy launch nearing an aircraft carrier sinks in heavy seas off Norfolk, Virginia, drowning 30.

13 Luglio 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Portsmouth (CL-102) runs its prow into a mudbank in the St. Lawrence River but is subsequently refloated.

4 Settembre 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. minesweeper No. 46 runs aground off Pigeon Island Light, Lake Ontario, New York.

19 Ottobre 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A liberty boat of the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious sinks in Portland harbor, U.K., drowning 29.

25 Novembre 1948 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Chandler (DMS-9) and the USS Ozbourn (DD-846) collide in the Yellow Sea.

15 Febbraio 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Antarctic: The Royal Navy sloop HMS Sparrow proceeds to Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands after freeing itself from ice in Admiralty Bay.

26 Febbraio 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Vengeance is holed by ice during testing of special armament and equipment in the Arctic.

28 Febbraio 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Taussig (DD-746) and USS Marsh (DE-699) are damaged in a collision during maneuvers in the Pacific.

23 Marzo 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Perch (SS-313) and the USS Orleck (DD-886) are damaged in a collision during maneuvers off San Diego, California.

26 Marzo 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Broadsword accidentally discharges an artillery shell over Portsmouth, U.K.

15 Aprile 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A gun accidently explodes aboard the USS Hollister (DD-788)during maneuvers near Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, killing four.

23 Aprile 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Fechteler (DD-870) and USS Leonard Mason (DD-852) are damaged in a collision off Oahu, Hawaii, injuring two.

30 Aprile 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Myngs is damaged by a practice torpedo during exercises.

7 Maggio 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Pan-American Airways says anti-aircraft fire from a U.S. carrier task force burst near a plane on a Bermuda-New York flight.

1 Giugno 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Chevron is damaged in a collision.

3 Giugno 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Loch Fada experiences an explosion.

2 Agosto 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Livermore (DD-429) runs aground at Bearse Shoal off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

26 Agosto 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: The USS Cochino (SS-345) explodes and sinks in Arctic seas off Norway, drowning six Navy rescuers and a Cochino technician. On 21 September the Soviet publication Red Fleet alleges the Cochino was sunk off Murmansk while scouting outmilitary information.

29 Agosto 1949 - Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (URSS). Prima bomba sovietica al plutonio progettata da Yakov Zeldovitch e Yuli Khariton.

22 Settembre 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Antarctic: The Argentine minesweeper Fournier sinks after striking a submerged rock in the Magellan Straits, killing 77.

9 Ottobre1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Chehalis (AOG-48) sinks after an explosion and fire in Tutuila, American Samoa.

9 Novembre 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tusk (SS-426) is rammed while submerged by the USS Aldebaran (AF-10) 175 miles off Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. The submarine suffers damage to its periscope and superstructure.

31 Dicembre 1949 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In 1949, a Polish ammunition ship carrying 500 tons of bombs sinks in the English Channel off Folkestone, U.K., after a collision. During 1968 harbor clearing operations the ship explodes with such force it causes earthquake reports as far away as Antarctica.

Anni '50 - A molti abitanti dell'Alaska vengono somministrati isotopi radioattivi per studiare il loro adattamento al freddo. 102 indiani Inuit e Gwich sono alimentati con capsule di Iodio 131, per poter studiare l'attività delle loro ghiandole tiroidee

13 Gennaio 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Truculent sinks after colliding with the Swedish tanker Divina ten miles east of Sheerness, U.K., in the Thames Estuary, killing 64.

13 Febbraio 1950 - Costa pacifica del Canada. Un bombardiere B-36 sgancia d'urgenza una bomba in mare, senza esplosione. An American B-36 bomber #44-92075 was flying a simulated combat mission from Eielson Air Force Base, near Fairbanks, Alaska, to Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth, Texas carrying one weapon containing a dummy warhead. The warhead contained uranium instead of plutonium. After six hours of flight, the bomber experienced mechanical problems and was forced to shut down three of its engines at an altitude of 12,000 feet (3,700 m). Fearing that severe weather and icing would jeopardize a safe emergency landing, the weapon was jettisoned over the Pacific Ocean from a height of 8,000 ft (2,400 m). The weapon's high explosives detonated upon impact. All of the sixteen crew members and one passenger were able to parachute from the plane and twelve were subsequently rescued from Princess Royal Island. The Pentagon's summary report does not mention if the weapon was later recovered

18 Marzo 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The net-laying ship USS Elder (AN-20) is damaged by an explosion off Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.

8 Aprile 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Royal Navy midget submarine explodes in Portsmouth harbor, U.K., killing one.

11 Aprile 1950 - Manzano Base, Albuquerque, Nuovo Messico, USA. Un bombardiere B-29 si schianta contro una montagna, vicino alla baase aerea di Kirtland AFB, e brucia. Non si ha esplosione, perchè anche se la bomba è distrutta, l'ogiva nucleare non è inserita e viene recuperata. Three minutes after departure from Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque a B-29 bomber carrying a nuclear weapon, four spare detonators, and a crew of thirteen crashed into a mountain near Manzano Base. The crash resulted in a fire which the New York Times reported as being visible from 15 miles (24 km) The bomb's casing was completely demolished and its high explosives ignited upon contact with the plane's burning fuel. However, according to the Department of Defense, the four spare detonators and all nuclear components were recovered. A nuclear detonation was not possible because, while on board, the weapon's core was not in the weapon for safety reasons. All thirteen crew members died

17 Maggio 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS General M.B. Stewart (AP-140) collides with a buoy in Port Said Harbor, Egypt, damaging the ship's propeller.

14 Giugno 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Trenchant suffers an explosion.

13 Luglio 1950 - Lebanon, Ohio, USA. Un bombardiere B-50 si schianta. La carica esplosiva della bomba salta, lo stadio nucleare resta inattivo. A B-50 bomber carrying a nuclear weapon without its fissile core crashed while on a training mission from Biggs Air Force Base near El Paso, Texas. Mechanical difficulties caused the bomber to nosedive from a height of 7,000 feet and crash. The weapon's high explosives detonated upon impact, causing an explosion felt well over 25 miles away and creating a crater 25 feet deep and 200 feet square. Four officers and twelve airmen were killed in the accident.

15 Luglio 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Eight ammunition barges explode in Portsmouth harbor, U.K. On 18 July British officials say sabotage is a suspected cause of the explosions.

15 Luglio 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Vengeance drags its moorings and collides with a quayside at Stavanger, Norway.

18 Luglio 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Missouri (BB-63) runs aground in Chesapeake Bay, suffering light damage. On 19 July, the Soviet publication Red Fleet ridicules the grounding of the Missouri.

25 Luglio 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Benevolence (AH-13) collides with SS Mary Luckenbach while on a trial run after being taken out of mothballs forservice in the Korean War. The Benevolence sinks outside San Francisco Bay, California, killing 18.

5 Agosto 1950 - Base Suisun dell'Air Force, Farfield, California (USA). Un bombardiere B-29 che trasporta una bomba nucleare senza la sua capsula fissile si schianta e si incendia vicino ad un campeggio di roulotte occupato da 200 famiglie. L'equipaggio aveva avuto difficoltà con i propulsori dell'aereo e con il ritiro del carrello di atterraggio immediatamente dopo il decollo dalla Base dell'Air Force di Fairfield Suisun (ora base dell'Air Force di Travis), schiantandosi, infine, mentre tentava un atterraggio di emergenza. Il bombardiere stava trasportando 20-27 kg. di bombe con esplosivo convenzionale, che detonarono 15 minuti dopo lo schianto. L'esplosione seguita, fu sentita fino ad una distanza di circa 50 km. e creò un cratere largo da un capo all'altro 18 m. e profonda 1,80 m. Lo schianto e la successiva detonazione uccisero diciotto uomini del personale, incluso il generale Travis dell'Air Force, e ferì altre 60 persone.

31 Agosto 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy boom defense vessel HMS Barwind experiences an explosion.

15 Settembre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The French weather-observation frigate La Place sinks after an explosion while at anchor in the Baie de la Fresnage near St.Malo, killing 51. The explosion is believed caused by a drifting magnetic mine.

16 Settembre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Armada is involved in a collision.

21 Settembre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : A torpedo fired from the British naval range at Bincleaves deviates from its course and sinks two sailing boats in Portland harbor, U.K.

30 Settembre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The French destroyer Amyot Dindeville is damaged by an explosion off Indochina.

18 Ottobre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Phoebe is involved in a collision.

27 Ottobre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Newcastle experiences a fire in a turret.

9 Novembre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Brownson (DD-868) and USS Charles H. Roan (DD-853) collide in the Atlantic during nighttime fleet maneuvers, killing four.

10 Novembre 1950 - Oceano Pacifico. Sgancio d'urgenza di una bomba in mare. Senza esplosione. Returning one of several U.S. Mark 4 nuclear bombs secretly deployed in Canada a B-50 had engine trouble and jettisoned the weapon at 10,500 feet (3,200 m). The crew set the bomb to self-destruct at 2,500 ft (760 m) and dropped over the St. Lawrence River. The explosion shook area residents and scattered nearly 100 pounds (45 kg) of depleted uranium used in the weapon's tamper. The plutonium core ("pit") was not in the bomb at the time

11 Novembre 1950 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Buck (DD-761) and USS Thomason (DE-203) are damaged in a collision in the Korean Bay.

16 Gennaio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Broadsword suffers a fire, killing one.

23 Gennaio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Daring suffers a fire.

12 Febbraio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy battleship HMS Vanguard is damaged in a collision with the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable in the Mediterranean.

14 Febbraio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Portuguese gunboat Garo sinks after colliding with a Portuguese warship off Portugal.

7 Aprile 1951 - Runit island, Atoll Enewetak (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 100 m.

8 Aprile 1951 - Eberiru island, Atoll d'Enewetak (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 60 m.

16 Aprile 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Affray sinks in the English Channel 30 miles north of the Island of Guernsey, killing 75. Possibly the submarine was flooded after its snorkel mast weldment failed. On 22 April all British "A" class submarines are docked pendingan investigation of the Affray accident.

28 Aprile 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy munitions ship HMS Bedenham explodes in Gibraltar, killing nine.

1 Maggio 1951 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare

16 Maggio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The small seaplane tender USS Valcour (AVP-55) is set a fire in a collision with a collier. The fire threatens the ship`s magazine.

18 Maggio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Bairoko (CVE-115) suffers a blast, killing five.

19 Maggio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific : The French tank landing ship Adour explodes in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

23 Maggio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A stray U.S. Navy torpedo sinks a fishing boat in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

24 Maggio 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy liberty launch capsizes at Newport, Rhode Island, killing 19.

8 Giugno 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Bermuda suffers an explosion.

23 Agosto 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wisconsin (BB-64) is freed after grounding on mud flats in New York Harbor.

8 Settembre 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy battleship HMS Duke of York collides with a ferry in the Mersey River, U.K.

3 Ottobre 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Grenville collides with an Italian vessel.

15 Ottobre 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The U.N. troopship Kongo Maru is wrecked by a typhoon off southern Japan.

30 Ottobre 1951 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare

1 Novembre 1951 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare

4 Novembre 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Argentine motorship Maipu sinks after colliding with the troop ship USS General M.L. Hersey (AP-148) in fog in the North Sea off Bremerhaven, West Germany. There are no reported casualties.

10 Novembre 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Thorough is damaged in a collision.

2 Dicembre 1951 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific : A converted U.S. Navy landing craft sinks off San Diego, California, killing six.

1952 - USA: incidente al reattore sperimentale Argon con 4 morti.

19 Gennaio 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Chivalrous is in a collision near Malta.

28 Marzo 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Mount Baker (AE-4) collides with a South Korean freighter, killing 24 South Koreans.

22 Aprile 1952 - Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 1.034 m.

26 Aprile 1952 - Bikini, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 4 m.

26 Aprile 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The destroyer minesweeper USS Hobson (DMS-26) sinks after colliding with the USS Wasp (CV-18) in the mid-Atlantic, killing 176 aboard the Hobson. The ships were part of a task force headed for the Mediterranean to join the SixthFleet. The collision occurred when the Wasp turned into the wind to receive aircraft.

26 Aprile 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS St. Paul (CA-73) suffers a powder blast in a gun turret while operating off Korea, killing 30.

8 Maggio 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Tenacious is grounded in the River Foyle, Northern Ireland.

2 Giugno 1952 - Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA: criticità di incidente con uranio A criticality excursion occurred in an experimental apparatus using uranium-235 oxide. The uranium oxide was in small particles (most 10 microns in diameter, some 40 microns in diameter) embedded in polystyrene plastic; a total of 6.8 kg of U-235 was involved. These fuel strips were combined with zirconium strips in a water-containing tank. Contrary to operating procedures, a control rod was being replaced while the tank was filled to the normal level with water. A criticality excursion occurred, heating the fuel sufficiently to cause bubble formation near the larger uranium oxide particles. This bubble formation forced most of the water out of the core, terminating the excursion within 0.6 seconds. Most of the 3 megajoule energy release occurred in a period of about 0.02 seconds. Doses to four individuals were 136, 127, 60, and 9 rad.

5 Giugno 1952 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 100 m.

10 Giugno 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Cumberland runs aground on TinkerShoal, two miles off Plymouth, U.K.

14 Giugno 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Sleuth collides with the destroyer HMS Zephyr in heavy fog while leaving Portsmouth harbor, U.K. The Zephyr suffers flooding in one of its magazines.

14 Giugno 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Seneschal's collision with the Danish frigate Thetis south of the Isle of Wight is reported. The submarine's periscope and radar mast are damaged.

11 Luglio 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A blast aboard a French cruiser in Toulon kills one.

6 Agosto 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unidentified Royal Navy submarine carries away the fishing gear of the Fleetwood Queen Alexandria trawler off the Isle of Man, U.K. The submarine is not damaged.

7 Agosto 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Boxer (CV-21) suffers an explosion and fire off Korea, killing nine.

14 Agosto 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Gregory (DD-802) and USS Marshall (DD-676) are slightly damaged after colliding off San Diego, California.

25 Settembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French diesel submarine Sibylle (ex-HMS Sportsman) fails to surface after a dive off Toulon, France, killing 46. The submarine is believed to have burst.

3 Ottobre 1952 - Monte Bello Island (U.K.): prima bomba nucleare inglese

24 Ottobre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tigrone (SS-419) suffers a fire at the Philadelphia naval base, injuring two civilians.

31 Ottobre 1952 - Elugelab, Atollo Enewetak, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico), USA. Test Mike. Esplosione in superficie (altezza di 10,4 metri). Prima bomba H americana (bomba a fusione). La bomba era alta come un edificio di tre piani, pesava più di 500 tonnellate ed era alimentata da combustibile criogenico e da liquido deuterio. Secondo gli ingenieri di Los Alamos, la palla di fuoco era di una dimensione pari a 4,8 Km. di diametro. Durante l'esplosione scomparvero l'isola d'Elugelap e altre isole vicine. Con Mike (nome del test), Gli USA entrarono nell'era delle armi nucleari Multi-megatoni.

12 Novembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The high speed transport USS Ruchamkin (APD-89) is rammed by a tanker 60 miles east of Cape Henry, Virginia, during maneuvers, killing five soldiers. The tanker captain denies he knew maneuvers were being conducted in the area.

16 Novembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Picking (DD-685) and USS Porter (DD-800) are slightly damaged after colliding in dense fog off Virginia.

17 Novembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Implacable is mildly damaged by a dockside fire in London.

23 Novembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wiseman (DE-667) strikes a submerged rock in Korean waters, causing damage to her sonar and hull. It proceeds to Sasebo, Japan, for repairs.

28 Novembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An Israeli naval ship disappears during a storm in the Mediterranean.

11 Dicembre 1952 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Sitkoh Bay (CVE-86) collides with a freighter in the Pacific, but none are hurt.

12 Dicembre 1952 - Chalk River (Ontario -Canada). L'errore di un tecnico provoca una reazione che porta alla semidistruzione del nocciolo del reattore (perdita di acqua di raffreddamento nel cuore del reattore). Si ebbero esplosioni in serie e fuga di gas e vapori radioattivi nell'atmosfera, accompagnate dal riversamento di 4.000 metri cubi di acqua in due canali non distanti dal fiume Outaouais. Il nocciolo del reattore, distrutto, fu interrato assieme alle scorie radioattive.

13 Gennaio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The minesweeper USS Condor (AMS-5) is heavily damaged by fire.

27 Gennaio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Dutchess suffers an explosion while in the U.K., damaging the ship and killing one.

3 Febbraio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Sabotage inquiries are under way in Devonport, U.K., after damage to the Royal Navy aircraft carriers HMS Warrior and HMS Triumph is reported.

3 Febbraio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable suffers an explosion while in Malta, killing three.

19 Febbraio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Prichett (DD-561) and USS Cushing (DD-797) collide while operating off the coast of Korea. Both ships require dry docking in Sasebo, Japan.

5 Marzo 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Termagant suffers a fire.

6 Marzo 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A bomb dislodged from a plane landing after a combat mission over Korea bounces twice across the deck of the USS Oriskany (CV-34) and explodes, killing two and injuring 15.

7 Marzo 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Egyptian minesweeper Sollum sinks during a storm off Alexandria, killing 54.

15 Marzo 1953 - Mayak Enterprise, Russia, URSS: criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio A criticality accident occurred in a plutonium processing facility. Plutonium separated from spent fuel rods was being processed in nitrate solution. Procedural errors in an unrecognized accumulation of 842 g of plutonium in one vessel, which became critical and brought the vessel contents to boiling. The operators transferred contents of another vessel to the first, ending the reaction. The accident was unrecognized for 2 days when one operator developed symptoms of radiation sickness. This operator had received a 1,000 rad dose, resulting in severe radiation sickness. He also sustained severe radiation burns on his legs, requiring amputation of both legs, but survived another 35 years. A second operator received a 100 rad dose; this worker and a third operator both developed radiation sickness.

17 Marzo 1953 - Knothole, Nevada Test Site, Area 4 (USA): test nucleare

24 Marzo 1953 - Knothole, Nevada Test Site, Area 4 (USA): test nucleare

4 Aprile 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Turkish diesel submarine Dumlupiner (formerly USS Blower [SS-325]) sinks after colliding with the Swedish freighter Naboland in the Dardanelles. The captain of the Naboland is held by Turkish authorities in connection with the incident, and on 11 April Sweden protests his arrest.

18 Aprile 1953 - Knothole, Nevada Test Site, Area 4 (USA): test nucleare

28 Aprile 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bennington (CV-20) suffers an explosion off Cuba, killing 11.

13 Maggio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wright (CVL-49) is hit by a target drone off Key West, Florida, killing three.

18 Maggio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unidentified fast patrol boat suffers fires and explosions in Aarhus harbor, Denmark, which slightly damage the Royal Navy vessel HMS Gay Archer, moored alongside.

20 Maggio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Coquette is in a collision.

25 Maggio 1953 - Knothole, Nevada Test Site, Area 4 (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 157 m.

16 Luglio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Vigo suffers a fire.

18 Luglio 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Carron suffers a fire.

1 Agosto 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In August the USS Harder (SS-568) is towed across the Atlantic to New London, Connecticut, by the USS Tringa (ASR-16) after breaking down off the east coast of Ireland.

25 Agosto 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Netherlands charges that U.S. Navy ships fired on a KLM civilian airliner over the Caribbean Sea. The U.S. State Department later reports anti-aircraft artillery shells were accidentally fired within two miles of the plane.

13 Settembre 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Delight is damaged by fire in Glasgow, Scotland.

15 Settembre 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Contest suffers a fire.

1 Ottobre 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Diamond collides with the cruiser HMS Swiftsure during exercises.

6 Ottobre 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Rattlesnake suffers a gun firing accident.

16 Ottobre 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Leyte (CV-32) is badly damaged by an explosion and subsequent fire caused by the accidental ignition of hydraulic fluid on a catapult while moored at Charlestown Naval Yard, Boston, killing 36. The fire takes five hours toextinguish.

28 Dicembre 1953 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Amethyst suffers a fire in its store room.

18 Gennaio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy tanker HMS Wave Victor suffers a fire off the Devon Coast, U.K.

21 Gennaio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. troopship rams a U.S. Navy landing craft off Inchon, South Korea, drowning 28 Marines.

28 Febbraio 1954 - Isola artificiale sulla costa di Bikini, isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare

1 Marzo 1954 - Atollo di Bikini, Oceano Pacifico: fallout atmosferico da test nucleare In 1954 the United States conducted Operation Castle, a series of nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands; the goal was to test prototypes of the first weaponized thermonuclear weapons ("emergency capability" weapons). The first shot in the series was Bravo, a test of the "Shrimp" TX-21 device, with a predicted yield of 6 megatons. The device was placed at the end of a causeway extending onto the reef 970 meters from the southwest tip of Namu island in Bikini Atoll. It was detonated at 6:45 AM on 1 March local time (18:45 28 February Universal Time). Designers had significantly underestimated the efficiency of reactions involving lithium-7 in the lithium deuteride solid fuel (one of the design innovations being tested); the actual yield was 15 megatons, 67% from fission. Additionally, shortly after the detonation the wind shifted from northward to eastward. 
A Japanese fishing boat, the Fukuryu Maru (Lucky Dragon) was just outside the 130-km radius restricted zone and received heavy fallout beginning about 1.5 hours after detonation. The 23 crewmembers did not recognize the falling material as hazardous and made little effort to minimize their exposure to it; some crew members tasted the fallout. Some crew members began developing radiation sickness within three days, and the entire crew developed acute radiation sickness before the boat returned to Japan on 14 March. On return to Japan, the boat's owner recognized the crew was ill and called a hospital, which referred the men for treatment the following day. One member of the Fukuryu Maru crew died of a liver disorder, a complication from radiation sickness, on 23 September 1954. 
Significant fallout also fell on inhabited islands west of Bikini under U.S. jurisdiction, exposing native islanders on Rongerik, Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Utirik atolls, all of which were evacuated on 3 March. The highest doses were to the 64 inhabitants of Rongelap Atoll (about 170 km from ground zero), some of whom received 175 rads before their evacuation 44 hours after the detonation. Some reports indicate that Rongelap inhabitants (unaware of the nature of the fallout) did little to minimize exposure, including inadvertent ingestion of fallout, contributing to acute radiation injury. In addition, 37 U.S. naval personnel--21 on the USS Philip and 16 on the USS Bairoko--received beta burns from fallout particles, producing lesions which all healed without complications. Some evacuated inhabitants of downwind atolls later developed thyroid hypofunction; thyroid exposure for some who were children at time of exposure is estimated at 700-1,400 rad and at 325 rad for some adults. Those who were children at Rongelap show high frequencies of thyroid anomalies, and one 19-year old male died in 1972 of leukemia (age 1 year at time of exposure).

9 Marzo 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An Australian destroyer rams a pier when it attempts to dock without tugs in Melbourne, Australia.

17 Marzo 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy tank landing ship runs aground at Eleuthera Island, Bahamas

17 Marzo 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Zest suffers a fire.

26 Marzo 1954 - Bikini, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 4,2 m. . Bomba posta su una base all'interno del cratere Bravo. La più potente bomba H americana equivalente a 1.000 volte Hiroshima. La palla di fuoco misurava 6 Km. di diametro, la cappa 160 Km.. 80 milioni di tonnellate di terra e di corallo vennero vaporizzate e crearono un cratere di 1.950 metri di diametro e 75 di profondità. A 48 Km. dall'esplosione il personale addetto ricevette una quantità di 2 reims, l'equivalente di 100 radiografie.

25 Aprile 1954 - Bikini, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare. Bomba fatta esplodere su una chiatta

13 Maggio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Japanese fishing boat Kine-Maru sustains damage as a result of shots fired by vessels of the Netherlands, Australia, and New Zealand during target practice in "Area George." The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs later presents a claim against the United Stateson the grounds that Japan had permitted the use of "Area George" to U.S. forces, but had not approved its use by other countries. The U.S. State Department rejects the claim, saying that "Area George" is located on the high seas and that its use does not require permissionf rom the Japanese government.

26 Maggio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bennington (CV-20) is damaged by an explosion and fire off Newport, Rhode Island, killing 103 and injuring 201.

27 Maggio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Curzon runs aground and is later refloated.

1 Luglio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Vigo suffers a fire.

14 Luglio 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy tanker HMS Wave Commander is involved in a collision.

3 Settembre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle is damaged by an aviation fuel-tank blast at the Devonport dock, killing one.

16 Settembre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Several weeks before its first sea trials, a small steam pipe in the reactor compartment of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) bursts, filling the area with steam during a test of the steam system while the ship is at the Electric Boat Shipyard in Groton, Connecticut. The test is part of a quality control effort to check the adequacy of the shipyard's inspection system. The incident initially appears to be minor. There are slight personnel injuries and no radiation hazards. However, subsequent investigation shows the situation is more serious. Specifications called for seamless pipe, but ordinary stanchion pipe had been used. All suspect pipe is ripped out and the mistake leads tomore stringent quality control measures.

8 Ottobre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Chevron is involved in a minor collision.

8 Ottobre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Laffey (DD-724) hits and sinks the distressed yacht Able Lady while attempting rescue.

24 Ottobre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyers HMS Battleaxe and HMS Scorpion collide during an exercise in the Bay of Biscay. The Battleaxe suffers a five-foot-hole in its bow, but is able to return to Plymouth Sound, U.K., unassisted.

27 Ottobre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigates HMS Relentless and HMS Vigilantcollide off western Scotland during night exercises.

31 Ottobre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Norris (DDE-859) rams the superstructure of the USSBergall (SS-320) during war games off Norfolk, Virginia. The Norris suffers flooding in five of its compartments and the Bergall suffers damage to its superstructure. Bothproceed to port for repairs.

9 Novembre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Canadian Navy ship collides with a ferry in Halifax, Canada, killing three.

12 Dicembre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Norwegian submarine is damaged by an explosion at Bergen, Norway.

15 Dicembre 1954 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Talent, undergoing a refit, is swept out of a Chatham dockyard by an inrush of water, due to a mistake in estimating the size of the tide.

Metà anni '50 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Undated but seemingly in the 1950s or early 1960s: the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) suffers an involuntary reactor shutdown which took 24 hours to overcome, during which she only had steerage way on the surface with her diesel engines.

4 Gennaio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Monterey (CVL-26) is slightly damaged after colliding with a freighter near the mouth of the Mississippi River.

7 Gennaio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Three U.S. Navy dock-landing craft capsize in heavy seas off Beaufort, North Carolina. Faulty steering gear blamed.

12 Gennaio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Power (DD-839) and USS Warrington (DD-843) collide during night exercises off Puerto Rico.

14 Gennaio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tench (SS-417) is grounded off Cape Henry Lighthouse, Virginia.

22 Gennaio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Flint Castle experiences a fire.

Febbraio 1955 - La nave appoggio Fori-Rosalie della Royal Navy affonda nell'Atlantico, con 1500 recipienti contenenti ciascuno una tonnellata di residui atomici, a 1.600 Km dalle coste inglesi e a 2.000 metri di profondità.

21 Febbraio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Pomodon (SS-486) is damaged by an explosion and fire caused by excess hydrogen formation during battery charging in the San Francisco Naval Yard, California, killing five.

11 Marzo 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy tank landing ship rams a trawler in Puget Sound, Washington, killing three.

12 Marzo 1955 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare

18 Marzo 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Cassin Young (DD-793) is driven aground by high winds at Fall River, Massachusetts.

18 Marzo 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS General R.E. Callan (AP-139) runs aground at Red Hook Flats, New York Harbor. News reports are censored for 24 hours.

5 Maggio 1955 - Nevada Test Site, Area 1 (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 150 m.

10 Maggio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A small military ship (of unspecified nationality) explodes at Kaohsiung, Taiwan, killing 49.

11 Maggio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) suffers a small leak in a fresh water line in the steam plant as it leaves on its shakedown cruise from Groton, Connecticut, forcing the ship to return to port for quick repairs. The Navy says the leak did not involve the reactor.

31 Maggio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Northumbria is involved in a collision.

2 Giugno 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Yugoslavian naval vessel sinks in the Adriatic Sea, killing 26.

17 Giugno 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Sidon sinks after a torpedo explosion in the forward torpedo compartment while the ship is in Portland harbor, U.K., killing 13.

9 Luglio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Sturdy suffers an explosion.

14 Luglio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Blake suffers a fire.

19 Luglio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Chevron is involved in a collision.

27 Luglio 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Danish diesel submarine Saelen is gutted by fire in Copenhagen.

14 Agosto 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy battleship HMS King George V runs aground while being towed into the Firth of Clyde, Scotland.

26 Settembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes loses power when a marking buoy wedges in a propeller bracket. The ship is towed to Belfast, Northern Ireland.

7 Ottobre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Venus suffers engine room damage.

19 Ottobre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Ceylon suffers a fire.

19 Ottobre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wisconsin (BB-64) is grounded for one hour in the East River, New York Harbor.

31 Ottobre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet cruiser hits a mine and sinks sometime in October. Conflicting reports described in the New York Times of 25 April 1956 place the sinking in the Black and Baltic Seas. Possibly the ship is an Italian warship given to the Soviet Union as war reparations, called the Novosibirsk.

31 Ottobre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS English (DD-696) and the USS Wallace L. Lind (DD-703) collide in heavy seas during antisubmarine exercises off Norfolk, Virginia. The English has 31 feet of its bow bent and broken off and the Lind suffers an eight-foot hole. Both head for Norfolk under escort.

11 Novembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Boyd (DD-544) is towed to port after striking a Japanese freighter off San Diego, California.

12 Novembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy plane crashes into the USS Hopewell (DD-681) during maneuvers off San Diego, California, killing three fliers and two sailors.

14 Novembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The radar ship USS Searcher (AGR-4) is damaged by explosions and fire off Cape May, New Jersey, killing three.

22 Novembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Heavy winds damage six U.S. Navy destroyers moored at Newport, Rhode Island.

23 Novembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Six sailors are killed as a result of a jet landing mishap on the deck of the USS Ticonderoga (CV-14) in the Mediterranean Sea.

29 Novembre 1955 - Idaho, USA. Partial meltdown. Operator error led to a partial core meltdown in the experimental EBR-I breeder reactor, resulting in temporarily elevated radioactivity levels in the reactor building and necessitating a significant repair.

4 Dicembre 1955 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A British troop ship is blown aground by heavy winds in the River Clyde, Scotland.

4 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Venus suffers a fire.

6 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Basilone (DD-824) runs aground near Hampton Roads, Virginia.

9 Gennaio 1956 - Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, USA. An incident involving a B-36 bomber carrying one or more nuclear weapons occurred on January 9, 1956, at Kirtland AFB in New Mexico, according to a February 1991 report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The report, however, provides no further details on the type of weapon involved or of any damage to the weapons onboard.

20 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS James V. Forrestal (CVA-59) collides with the USS Pinnacle (MSO-462) at Norfolk, Virginia, slightly damaging the Pinnacle.

21 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Artemis collides with a motor fishing vessel off the Isle of Wight in the English Channel. The submarine is undamaged and continues on exercises.

23 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Scorpion crashes into the Londonderry, Northern Ireland, dockside.

25 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Mutine suffers a fire.

27 Gennaio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Puma experiences a fire.

4 Febbraio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Scorcher is damaged in a collision.

10 Febbraio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Chieftain collides with the naval tanker HMS Blue Ranger in foul weather while en route from Malta to Beirut, Lebanon, and suffers damage to its bows.

21 Febbraio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Eastbourne suffers an explosion.

10 Marzo 1956 - Mar Mediterraneo. Un bombardiere B-47 trasportante due capsule nucleari, racchiuse nei loro involucri, scompare sopra il Mar Mediterraneo. L'aereo, in volo diretto dalla base aerea di MacDill a Tampa, Florida, ad una base aerea straniera segreta, si perde con il suo equipaggio. Dopo il decollo, il B-47 era programmato per due rifornimenti di carburante in volo prima di raggiungere la sua destinazione finale. Il primo rifornimento fu completato con successo, ma l'aereo non contattò mai il secondo aereo cisterna per il rifornimento, sopra il Mar Mediterraneo. Nonostante una ricerca estesa, nessuna traccia dell'aereo, delle capsule nucleari, o dell'equipaggio, fu trovata.

11 Marzo 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Columbus (CA-74) and USS Floyd B. Parks (DD-884) are damaged after colliding off Luzon, Philippines.

18 Marzo 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fifteen ships of a U.S. destroyer fleet break their moorings during a storm off Newport, Rhode Island.

18 Marzo 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Willis A. Lee (DL-4) runs aground off Jamestown, Rhode Island.

22 Aprile 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) is snared in the nets of a fishing vessel off the New Jersey coast 140 miles southeast of New York, while running at a depth of 150 feet. The submarine nearly drags the vessel under water, but the Nautilus is unaware of the mishap, does not surface, and continues to Groton, Connecticut. The estimated damage is $1,300 to each vessel.

26 Aprile 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Remey (DD-688) runs aground in the Persian Gulf.

28 Aprile 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) suffers a fire caused by a welder's torch, while berthed at New London, Connecticut, during repair of damage caused by snaring of a fishing net on 22 April. The blaze ignites cork insulation and burns paint from the hull. The Navyreports that damage from the fire, the third to break out on the Nautilus, is slight.

7 Maggio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Eaton (DD-510) and USS Wisconsin (BB-64) are badly damaged after a collision in fog off Virginia. Commander Varley of the Eaton is later court-martialed and found negligent.

8 Maggio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Redpole collides with a yacht in Copenhagen, Denmark.

10 Maggio 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Talent is involved in a collision.

6 Giugno 1956 - Atollo d'Enewetak (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 2,1 m.

25 Giugno 1956 - Bikini, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare. Bomba H al livello del mare

2 luglio 1956 - Eberiru island, Atollo d'Enewetak (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 100 m.

8 luglio 1956 - Eberiru island (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare al suolo, bomba situata nel cratere Ivy.

27 Luglio 1956 - Lakenheath in Suffolk, Gran Bretagna. Un bombardiere B-47 slitta sulla pista e va a colpire un deposito contenente sei bombe nucleari. Si scatena un colossale incendio. "L'Inghilterra orientale stava per diventare un deserto. E' stato l'eroismo dei militari che hanno sacrificato la vita nello spegnere l'incendio e la fortuna ad impedire la catastrofe" dichiarerà anni dopo ad un giornali sta l'ex comandante della base.A B-47 crashed into a storage igloo spreading burning fuel over three Mark 6 nuclear bombs at RAF Lakenheath. A bomb disposal expert stated it was a miracle exposed detonators on one bomb did not fire, which presumably would have released nuclear material into the environment

4 Agosto 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Windham Bay (CVE-92) is heavily damaged by fire while in Alameda, California.

19 Agosto 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The experimental sodium-cooled nuclear reactor of the USS Seawolf (SSN-575) suffers a failure in the steam plant during a full power test run while the new ship is at Groton, Connecticut. A leak of sodium-potassium alloy being used as the third fluidin the steam generator aggravates stress corrosion in the system, causing two cracks in steam piping and a leak in a superheater. Makeshift repairs permit the Seawolf to complete its initial sea trials on reduced power in February 1957. Due to the difficulties of running a sodium-cooled reactor, the Navy decides to replace the Seawolf's sodium-cooled reactor with a water-cooled reactor, and use only water-cooled designs in the future.

22 Settembre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Decoy suffers an explosion.

29 Settembre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A shell explodes aboard the USS Buck (DD-761), killing one.

29 Settembre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy minesweepers HMS Broadly, HMS Etchingham,and HMS Bisham are extensively damaged by fire at Portsmouth harbor, U.K.

6 Ottobre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Keppel collides with a Torpoint ferry, near Plymouth, U.K.

6 Ottobre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Orwell is involved in a collision.

13 Ottobre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Anchorite runs aground in Rothesay Bay, U.K., and is refloated two days later.

15 Ottobre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During the height of the Suez crisis the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) accidentally fires two dummy practice torpedoes at a British merchantman during naval maneuvers in European waters. The Nautilus mistakes the ship for an aircraft carrier on its sonar.

23 Ottobre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Antietam (CVS-36) is grounded for six hours off Brest, France.

22 Novembre 1956 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Scorcher suffers a fire during exercises.

1957/1965 - Apollo, Pennsylvania, USA. Fra il 1957 e il 1965, 100 kg. di uranio 235 spariscono dal centro di riciclaggio nucleare di Apollo. Il materiale permette di fabbricare più di una bomba atomica. Il presidente della società aveva delle relazioni con Israele, ma il mistero non è mai stato risolto.

1957 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di cieca 200 m.

3 Gennaio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy coastal minesweeper HMS Ilmington suffers a fire.

7 Marzo 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Mission San Francisco (AO-123) suffers explosions and fires when it collides with the Liberian freighter Elna IIin the Delaware River near New Castle, Delaware, killing ten.

21 Aprile 1957 - Mayak Enterprise, Russia, URSS: criticità di incidente con soluzione di uranio The accident occurred in a glovebox assembly within which uranium solution was precipitated into vessels. For several reasons, an unexpectedly large amount of uranium precipitate accumulated in a filter receiving vessel. The operator at the glovebox observed the filter vessel to bulge prior to ejection of gas and some solution and precipitate from the vessel within the glovebox. The operator gathered some precipitate by (gloved) hand and returned it to the vessel; within seconds she began to feel ill. It was not recognized that a criticality excursion had occurred until the radiation control officer made measurements 15-20 minutes later. The female operator received a whole body dose of 3,000 rad or 4,600 rad, developed nausea, vomiting, headache, and fatigue within 20-30 minutes, and died 12 days later. The other five operators in the room at the time received doses over 300 rad, and five other individuals sustained doses up to 100 rad; the five operators developed radiation sickness (one report suggests all ten did). All ten (3 male, 7 female) recovered.

15 Maggio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy A3D Skywarrior aircraft crashes while landing on theUSS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) off San Diego, California, killing three.

15 Maggio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) reportedly hits a submerged object off Florida. The object is not thought to be a submarine. The Navy later denies that the carrier had hit an object, claiming instead that a propeller had broken.

20 Maggio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The USS Antietam (CVS-36) crashes into a river wharf in New Orleans, Louisiana. The wharf is heavily damaged, while damage to the carrier is light.

21 Maggio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : A U.S. Navy experimental X-1 submarine is damaged by a blast at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. There are no injuries.

22 Maggio 1957 - Base dell'Air Force di Kirtland, New Mexico, USA. Una bomba nucleare senza la sua capsula fissile cade dal vano bombe di un B-36 ad un'altitudine di circa 500 metri ed esplode all'impatto. Il bombardiere stava trasportando entrambe le bombe e la loro capsula fissile, che era stata rimossa per sicurezza, dalla base di Biggs dell'Air Force in Texas alla base di Kirtland in New Messico. Sebbene i paracaduti attaccati alla bomba si fossero aperti durante la sua caduta, essi non funzionarono correttamente. La bomba nucleare fu completamente distrutta nella detonazione che accadde a circa 7 Km. a sud della torre di controllo di Kirtland e mezzo Km. ad ovest del terreno riservato della Sandia Base, creando un cratere d'esplosione di circa 8 metri di diametro e 4 metri di profondità. I frammenti della bomba e i detriti furono dispersi su di un area di oltre 1.500 m.. Fu condotto un esame radiologico dell'area, ma non rilevò contaminazione radioattiva oltre l'orlo del cratere.

28 maggio 1957 - Nevada Test Site, Area 7c (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 150 m.

8 Giugno 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Eleven depth charges explode prematurely off the stern of the USS Whitehurst (DE-634) 18 miles off Pearl Harbor, endangering the lives of a Hollywood movie cast on board to shoot a movie scene.

19 Giugno 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A high-pressure steam line explodes aboard the USS Franklin D.Roosevelt (CVA-42) off Jacksonville, Florida, killing two and injuring five.

24 giugno 1957 - Nevada Test Site, Area 5 (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 210 m.

6 Luglio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle suffers a fire.

13 Luglio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Redpole is involved in a collision.

15 Luglio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A Royal Navy destroyer depot ship suffers a fire.

18 Luglio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A TNT device aboard the USS Somersworth (PCER-849) explodes off Montauk Point, New York, killing three.

25 Luglio 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Mauna Loa (AE-8) suffers a fire off New York. The fire is extinguished before it reaches the ship's 3,500-ton cargo of explosives.

28 Luglio 1957 - Oceano Atlantico. Un aereo da trasporto C-124 con problemi meccanici abbandona due armi nucleari, senza la loro capsula di materiale fissile, al largo della costa orientale degli Stati Uniti. Il C-124, sulla rotta dalla base aerea di Dover a Delaware, perde potenza nei motori numero uno e due. L'equipaggio è certo che la quota non può essere mantenuta con il peso delle bombe a bordo e decide di abbandonare il carico. Anche se nessuna bomba detona, si presume che entrambe le bombe si siano danneggiate nell'impatto con la superficie dell'oceano e che siano affondate quasi istantaneamente. Nessuna delle due bombe, né detriti sono mai stati trovati. Il C-124 atterra per sicurezza su un campo d'aviazione vicino ad Atlantic City, nel New Jersey, con la bomba rimanente e la testata nucleare a bordo.

7 Agosto 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Cobbler (SS-344) and USS Tusk (SS-426) are slightly damaged after an underwater collision during maneuvers off New Jersey.

7 agosto 1957 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare ad una altezza di 500 m.

19 Agosto 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wisconsin (BB-64) scrapes its bottom near a sea buoy off Cape Henry, Virginia, during a storm.

25 Agosto 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Lenawee (APA-195) and USS Wantuck (APD-125) collide in the Pacific, killing one.

28 Agosto 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Peruvian diesel submarine Iquique is freed from a sand bar where it had run aground during trials in the Long Island Sound, New York.

29 Agosto 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy coastal minesweeper HMS Badminton is in a collision.

1 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: In the first few days of September, the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) suffers damage to two periscopes while rising under ice conditions during an exploratory trip under the Arctic icepack. The Nautilus returns from under the icepack to the open sea to perform repairs on the surface. It takes 12 hours in rough seas, freezing temperatures, and gale winds to fix one
periscope. The other is damaged beyond repair.

5 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Decoy runs aground.

11 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Blake suffers an explosion and fire while in Glasgow, Scotland.

11 Settembre 1957 - Denver, Colorado, USA - Fire, release of nuclear materials. A fire began in a materials handling glove box and spread through the ventilation system into the stack filters at the Rocky Flats weapons mill 27 kilometres (17 mi) from Denver, Colorado. Plutonium and other contaminants were released, but the exact amount of which contaminants is unknown; estimates range from 25 mg to 250 kg.

12 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) suffers a second fire while in dry dock in Boston, Massachusetts, causing minor damage.

14 Settembre 1957 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare

20 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Taciturn collides with amerchant ship during exercises off Brighton, U.K., in the English Channel. No damage is reported.

21 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Delight is rammed by the Clydetug Forager at the Princess Pier, Greenock, Scotland.

26 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy A3D Skywarrior crashes while attempting to land on the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) during NATO exercises in the Norwegian Sea.

29 Settembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Purdy (DD-734) and the British trawler British Columbia collide off The Netherlands, sinking the trawler. A small hole is punched in the Purdy's hull above the waterline.

29 Settembre 1957 - Kyshtym, Complesso Nucleare i Mayak, (Unione Sovietica) (scala Ines 6). In una fabbrica di armi nucleari negli Urali e stoccaggio di scorie radioattive, una cisterna contenente scorie radioattive prende fuoco ed esplode, contaminando migliaia di chilometri quadrati di terreno. Una nube, contenente più di 2 milioni di curie di prodotti radioattivi, si solleva per più di un chilometro in altezza (la metà di quanto rilasciato a Chernobyl). Il rilascio esterno di radioattività avviene a seguito di un malfunzionamento del sistema di refrigerazione di una vasca di immagazzinamento di prodotti di fissione ad alta attività. Vengono esposte alle radiazioni circa 270.000 persone. Si stimano per le conseguenze dell'incidente oltre 200 morti. Vengono evacuate 10.000 persone ed interdetta una zona di 250 kmq. Nella zona vengono installati cartelli stradali con le scritte: "Chiudete i fenestrini e guidate il più velocemente possibile" Le prime informazioni dell'incidente, in quanto classificato segreto di stato, si hanno nel 1976 dal biologo russo Jaurès Medvedev, riparato in Inghilterra. Nel 2000, il quotidiano francese Libération rivela che i materiali radioattivi stanno riemergendo in superficie ingiallendo le acque sotterranee.

7/12 Ottobre 1957 -Sellafield (Gran Bretagna) (scala Ines 5). Nel complesso nucleare di Windscale in Gran Bretagna, dove si produce plutonio per scopi militari, un incendio nel nocciolo di un reattore a gas-grafite (GCR) genera una nube radioattiva imponente, pari al 1/10 della bomba atomica di Hiroshima. I principali materiali rilasciati sono gli isotopi radioattivi di xenon, iodio, cesio e polonio. La nube attraversa l'Europa intera. Sono stati ufficializzati soltanto 300 morti per cause ricondotte all'incidente (malattie, leucemie, tumori), ma il dato potrebbe essere sottostimato. La radioattività su Londra giunse fino a 20 volte oltre il valore naturale, e Londra dista da Windscale 500 km. Il consumo di latte venne vietato in un raggio di 50 km (una zona di 500 kmq). Nel 1983 un documentario della televisione britannica rivela che nel villaggio di Seascale, non lontano da Sellafield, il tasso dei bambini colpiti da cancro è dieci volte più elevato che la media nazionale. Secondo il giornale Le Monde del 2 gennaio 1988, il vecchio primo ministro conservatore britannico, Harold Macmillan, aveva ordinato di insabbiare un rapporto dettagliato sulle cause di un grave incendio avvenuto all'interno di una fabbrica per il ritrattamento delle scorie nucleari di Windscale

9 Ottobre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific : The USS Mission San Miguel (AO-129) runs aground on a reef in the mid-Pacific

11 Ottobre 1957 - Homestead Air Force Base, Homestead, Florida, USA. Un bombardiere B-47 si schianta con una bomba di cui la carica nucleare era disinnescata. L'aereo brucia, esplode la carica classica. A B-47 bomber carrying a nuclear weapon and its separated fissile core crashed shortly after takeoff. The aircraft crashed in an inhabited area approximately 3,800 feet from the end of the runway, enveloping the nuclear weapon and its fissile core in flames which burned and smoldered for approximately four hours. Although two small explosions occurred during the burning, the weapon core and its carrying case were recovered intact and only slightly damaged by the heat. Approximately one-half of the weapon remained and all its major components were recovered but damaged.

23 Ottobre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Forrestal (CVA-59) is slightly damaged after a collision with an oiler at sea.

16 Novembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Washington Post reports that the reactor compartment of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) flooded several days ago after a small leak developed while the submarine was in port in Connecticut. The leak was due to the malfunctioning of a valve, and according to the Navy caused no radioactive contamination or damage to the power plant.

11 Dicembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Alcaston loses power.

12 Dicembre 1957 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Manley (DD-940) is badly damaged in heavy seas in the eastern Atlantic.

1958 - Christmas Island (Australia - Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare. Bomba H Inglese

1958 - Zona Urali (Urss). Catastrofe nucleare a causa dell'esplosione di un deposito di scorie radioattive. Centinaia di morti. Decine di migliaia di contaminati. Migliaia di km. ancora oggi recintati.

2 Gennaio 1958 - Mayak Enterprise, Russia, URSS: Criticità di incidente con soluzione di uranio Following the criticality accident at the same facility in 1957, an apparatus had been constructed to test criticality phenomena in fissile solutions. A 400-liter tank on a platform was used for measurements involving solutions; after each experiment, the tank was drained into individual 6-liter containers of favorable geometry. On this occasion, the tank contained uranyl nitrate solution (90% U-235) and was being drained for another experiment. After filling several 6-liter containers, operators decided to circumvent the standard procedure to save time. Three operators unbolted the tank and lifted it to pour directly into containers. The presence of the operators provided sufficient neutron reflection to cause a criticality excursion, producing a flash of light and ejecting solution as high as the ceiling, 5 meters above the tank. The operators dropped the tank and, along with a fourth operator in the room, left the area for decontamination and transport to the hospital within 2 hours of the accident, having already exhibited symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. The three operators who lifted the tank (all men) incurred fatal doses of radiation, with respective doses of 7,000-12,500 rad (died on day 6), 7,600-13,100 rad (died on day 7), and 3,000-4,800 rad (died on day 10). The fourth operator, a woman, sustained a dose of 700-1,200 rad but recovered from radiation sickness. She suffered chronic health problems afterwards, developing cataracts in both eyes and becoming blind years later, eventually dying of lung cancer in 1982.

4 Gennaio 1958 - Hamburg, New York, USA. Un treno merci diretto a est deraglia nella ferrovia Nickel Plate. Cinque automobili che trasportano "materiale classificato AEC" sono coinvolte nell'incidente. Secondo il rapporto della Commissione indagante non c'è stato alcun danno al materiale e alcun ferito tra il personale AEC che scortava il carico.

10 Gennaio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A plane catapult explodes aboard the USS Kearsage (CVA-33) off Yokosuka, Japan, killing three.

14 Gennaio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy boom defense vessel HMS Barcombe runs aground off the Island of Oronsay, Argyll, Scotland.

18 Gennaio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Essex (CVA-9) is damaged by fire at sea.

31 Gennaio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A bomber explodes on the flight deck of the USS Hancock (CVA-19), killing two.

31 Gennaio 1958 - Base straniera non identificata. Un bombardiere B-47 con una bomba nucleare in configurazione d'attacco sta compiendo un decollo simulato durante un'esercitazione quando la ruota posteriore sinistra viene a mancare, provocando l'urto della coda contro la pista e la rottura del serbatoio del carburante. L'aereo prende fuoco e brucia per sette ore. Sebbene l'alto esplosivo non detoni, si ha contaminazione nell'area immediatamente circostante allo schianto. In seguito all'incidente, le esercitazioni di allertamento vennero temporaneamente sospese. Lo schianto può aver avuto luogo in una base aerea USA a Sidi Slimane, nel Marocco Francese. Un successivo documento dell'Air Force riportò che "l'inquinamento dei rottami era alto, ma che sull'area circostante era basso". Un servizio del New York Times dell'8 giugno 1960, menziona un incidente di bomba nucleare che era accaduto "in un campo degli Stati Uniti vicino Tripoli, in Libia", senza fornire ulteriori dettagli.

Febbraio 1958 - Luogo ed aereo sconosciuti. An unidentified aircraft crashed "on base" while carrying a MK-7 training weapon in February, 1958. Aircraft wreckage and weapons parts were scattered over an area approximately 250 feet wide by 0.25 miles long. The largest piece of weapon recovered was located with part of the plane's tail section.

Febbraio 1958 - Base aerea Greenham Common, Gran Bretagna. Un bombardiere B-47 che sta subendo un guasto al motore durante il decollo espelle due cisterne piene di 6.500 litri di carburante da un'altezza di circa 2.500 m.: esse non cadono nell'area designata per un impatto sicuro ed esplodono a 20 m. dietro un B-47 parcheggiato e caricato con bombe nucleari. Il fuoco che ne deriva brucia per 16 ore e causa la deflagrazione delle alte cariche esplosive di almeno una bomba atomica. L'esplosione rilascia materiale radioattivo, includendo uranio polverizzato e ossido di plutonio, dei quali almeno 10-20 grammi vengono trovati intorno alla base. Inoltre un hangar adiacente è gravemente danneggiato e altri aerei vicini vengono spruzzati con pompe d'acqua per prevenirne l'incendio a causa dell'intenso calore alimentato dal combustibile per jet e dal magnesio del B-47. Il fuoco uccide due persone, ne ferisce altre otto, e distrugge il bombardiere. L'Air Force non ha mai ammesso ufficialmente che armi nucleari fossero coinvolte in questo incidente. L'Air Force e il ministro della difesa inglese furono d'accordo nel 1956 di negare l'esistenza delle bombe nucleari in qualsiasi incidente che coinvolgeva le armi nucleari statunitensi collocate in Inghilterra. Nel 1985, il governo inglese riferì che l'incidente coinvolse un B-47 parcheggiato colpito da un B-47 in fase di decollo in un esercizio di addestramento, ma omise ogni riferimento circa il successivo incendio.

4 Febbraio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Swedish diesel submarine Illern sinks in a shipyard, Malmo, Sweden.

5 Febbraio 1958 - Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Un'arma nucleare senza la capsula nucleare fissile viene perduta in seguito ad una collisione a mezz'aria. Un bombardiere B-47 trasportante un'arma nucleare senza il suo nucleo fissile, si scontra con un aereo F-86 vicino a Savannah, in Georgia. Dopo tre tentativi senza successo per far scendere l'aereo alla base Hunter in Georgia, l'arma viene gettata via per evitare il rischio di un'alta detonazione esplosiva nella base stessa. L'arma viene rilasciata in mare a diverse miglia dalla foce del Savannah River a Wassaw Sound al largo di Tybee Beach, ma il preciso punto dell'impatto rimane sconosciuto. Gli alti esplosivi dell'arma non esplodono nell'impatto. Una ricerca successiva, su un'area di 5 km.quadrati, impiegando dispositivi subacquei e sonar, non riesce a trovare l'arma. La ricerca viene sospesa il 16 aprile 1958, e la bomba viene considerata irrimediabilmente persa. La migliore stima della posizione della bomba, annota un resoconto del Dipartimento della Difesa, " è stata determinato essere 31 gradi 54' e 15'' a nord, 80 gradi 54' e 45'' ovest". Il B-47 era in una missione di combattimento simulata dalla base dell'Air Force di Homestead in Florida.

12 Febbraio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A rocket propelled antisubmarine weapon backfires aboard the USSEaton (DD-510), killing one.

16 Febbraio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The fuel supply submarine USS Guavina (ASSO-362) runs aground in high winds and foul weather after dragging its anchor in San Salvador, El Salvador.

27 Febbraio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tripoli (CVU-64) is towed to Bremerhaven, West Germany, after running aground in the Weser estuary.

3 Marzo 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Decoy suffers a fire.

11 Marzo 1958 - Mars Bluff, Carolina del Sud - USA. Una bomba atomica è sganciata per errore e cade in un giardino. Esplode la carica classica. Viene distrutta la casa e gli abitanti vengono gravemente feriti. Il cratere provocato è di 20,5 m. di diametro e di 10,5 m. di profondità. A B-47E accidentally jettisoned an unarmed nuclear weapon without its fissile core at 15,000 feet, which impacted in a sparsely populated area 6-1/2 miles east of Florence, South Carolina. The bomb's high explosive material exploded on impact, causing property damage and several injuries. The aircraft, which was heading to an undisclosed overseas base, returned to Hunter Air Force Base in Georgia without further incident. Numerous accounts of the accident describe the bomb falling in the garden of Mr. Walter Gregg in Mars Bluff, South Carolina. The high explosive detonation virtually destroyed his house, creating a crater 50-70 feet in diameter and 25-30 feet deep. It caused minor injuries to Mr. Gregg and five members of his family, and damaged five other houses as well as a church. Following the accident, Air Force crews were ordered to "lock in" their nuclear bombs, which reduced the possibility of accidental drops but increased the danger during a plane crash.

1 Aprile 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Corregidor (CVU-58) cracks its hull in a storm off the Azores.

2 Aprile 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy fleet supply ship HMS Fort Duquesne suffers a fire.

17 Aprile 1958- (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic:The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Bulwark is involved in a collision in the Suez Canal.

24 Aprile 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Yarnall (DD-541) is damaged by a dummy torpedo fired by a submarine during practice.

25 Aprile 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) springs a small saltwater leak in one of the steam condensers shortly after leaving Groton, Connecticut, as the submarine heads south toward the Panama Canal to transit to the Pacific for its expedition to the North Pole. After passing through the Canal and experiencing a fire (5/4/58), the Nautilus puts into Mare Island Naval Shipyard, near San Francisco, California, for repairs. The source of the leak cannot be pin pointed, however, and the ship proceeds to Seattle,Washington. During the trip to Seattle, the captain decides touse the same type of additive that is sold for leaky car radiators to try to repair the leak in the condenser. Upon arriving in Seattle in late May or early June, 140 quarts are purchased and half are poured into the cooling system. The reactor plantis started and the leak stopped.

28 Aprile 1958 - Christmas Island (Australia - Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare. Bomba H inglese.

4 Maggio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) suffers a fire in the insulation around one of its turbines as the ship is running submerged in the Pacific shortly after leaving Panama on its way to its Arctic mission. The insulation had become oil-soaked during the submarine's three years of operation and had caught fire. The fire is put out with minor injuries, but the submarine must surface to ventilate.

23 Maggio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Lion suffers a fire.

24 Maggio 1958 - Chalk River (Ontario -Canada). Incendio al reattore e fuga radiottiva. Due to inadequate cooling a damaged uranium fuel rod caught fire and was torn in two as it was being removed from the core at the NRU reactor. The fire was extinguished, but not before radioactive combustion products contaminated the interior of the reactor building and to a lesser degree, an area surrounding the laboratory site. Over 600 people were employed in the clean-up

28 Maggio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Stickleback (SS-415) sinks after being rammed by the USS Silverstein (DE-534) off Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. There are no casualties. The submarine had lost power and drifted into the Silverstein's path.

8 Giugno 1958 - Atollo d'Enewetak (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una profondità di 50 m.

11 Giugno 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The trawler St. Clair catches a Royal Navy submarine in its net off Land's End, U.K. There is little damage.

16 Giugno 1958 - Usa. Un incidente a Oak Ridge: 12 persone investite dalle radiazioni. A leak in a tank containing uranyl nitrate solution (93% U-235) was discovered on 15 June. The leak was not properly logged. The following day other tanks were being drained into a 55-gallon drum; uranium solution from the leaking tank also entered the drum. The operator nearest the drum noticed yellow-brown fumes rising from the drum's contents; he retreated before seeing a blue flash as the criticality excursion occurred. Excursion power output rose for at least 3 minutes, then ended after 20 minutes. Eight people received significant doses: 461, 428, 413, 341, 298, 86, 86, and 29 rem.

20 Giugno 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Hound is involved in a collision.

28 Giugno 1958 - Atollo d'Enewetak (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare ad una altezza di 2,6 m.

3 Luglio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Chemung (AO-30) runs aground 500 yards off Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay, California, during a naval procession.

6 Luglio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Caney (AO-95) loses power during a monsoon in the Arabian Sea, and is in danger for several days until it can be towed by U.S. ships.

8 Luglio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy barge used for research in under water explosions suffers an explosion and flash fire while in port at Norfolk, Virginia.

19 Luglio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Piper (SS-409) runs aground on a sandbar off Provincetown, Massachusetts, but is pulled free after seven hours with minor damage.

22 Luglio 1958 - Bikini, Isole Marshall (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare a livello del mare

23 Luglio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A fuel tank accidentally falls from a FJ4B Fury fighter being launched from the USS Ticonderoga (CV-14) while operating off California, killing two.

24 Luglio 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Skate (SSN-578) suffers damage to its propeller when it collides with the USS Fulton (AS-11) while the tender is moored to a pier in New London, Connecticut.

22 Agosto 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Prestige (MSO-465) sinks after running aground off Shikoku, Japan.

3 Settembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Amphion hits a British naval training ship.

24 Settembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Camperdown suffers a fire.

29 Settembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Hogue collides with the British trawler Northern Foam while trying to prevent the arrest of the trawler by an Icelandic patrol boat for illegally fishing in Icelandic waters.

10 Ottobre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Andrew is involved in a collision.

14 Ottobre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An explosion floods the engineering room of the USS Saratoga(CVA-60) at Jacksonville, Florida.

15 Ottobre 1958 - Vinca, Yugoslavia: criticità di incidente in un reattore di ricerca The accident involved a research reactor using 3,995 kg of aluminum-clad natural uranium fuel in a tank filled with heavy water for moderator. A subcritical foil counting experiment was being performed when an experimenter noticed the smell of ozone and realized a criticality excursion was occurring. The power buildup had gone undetected as the water level was raised due to saturation of both detecting chambers. The total energy release was about 80 million joules (about 2 kg of TNT equivalent). The six individuals in the room received doses of 433, 422, 415, 410, 320, and 205 rem. All developed severe radiation sickness and one died. The five survivors all received experimental bone marrow transplants, which were rejected in all patients, although before rejection the transplants probably contributed to survival.

21 Ottobre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Rich (DD-820), USS Moale (DD-693), USS Ellyson (DD-454), and the destroyer USS Sumner are damaged in a severe storm off North Carolina.

23 Ottobre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) is disabled off Greenland when the steering engines fail.

23 Ottobre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Grenville inadvertently surges forward while preparing to leave Portland harbor, U.K., and collides with the minesweeper HMS Shoulton and the submarine support ship HMS Chaser.

25 Ottobre 1958 - Vinča, Yugoslavia. During a subcritical counting experiment a power buildup went undetected at at the Boris Kidrich Institute's zero-power natural uranium heavy water moderated research reactor. Saturation of radiation detection chambers gave the researchers false readings and the level of moderator in the reactor tank was raised triggering a criticality excursion which a researcher detected from the smell of ozone. Six scientists received radiation doses between 200 to 400 rems. An experimental bone marrow transplant treatment was performed on all of them in France and five survived, despite the ultimate rejection of the marrow in all cases. A single women among them later had a child without apparent complications. This was one of the first nuclear incidents investigated by then newly-formed IAEA

27 Ottobre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigates HMS Undine and HMS Ulysses are both damaged above the waterline in a collision off the Ile d'Ouessant, Brittany, France.

4 Novembre 1958 - Arkansas, USA. Un B-47 si schianta dopo il decollo. Il materiale nucleare non viene danneggiato. 4 Novembre 1958 - Dyess Air Force Base, Abilene, Texas. A B-47 bomber carrying a nuclear weapon caught fire during takeoff and crashed from an altitude of 1,500 feet, killing one crew member. The resulting detonation of high explosives created a crater 35 feet in diameter and six feet deep. Nuclear materials from the weapon were recovered near the crash site.

5 Novembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Growler (SSG-577) springs a leak during a deep-sea dive but surfaces without damage off the Isle of Shoals, southeast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The Growler, designed for launching the Regulus II sea-to-landmissile, was several hundred feet below the surface when the leak developed in an improperly adjusted sonar compartment fittingfor an electrical cable.

6 Novembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Alamein experiences a fire.

10 Novembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CVA-61) suffers an explosion in the magazine area seven decks below the waterline while off San Francisco, California, killing two. A careless act by two crewmen trying to obtain gunpowder from the magazine to fuel a minature ram jetengine they had built caused the explosion. The Navy said the two men were known rocket enthusiasts and were not authorized to be in the magazine area at the time of the explosion. The "relatively minor" damage takes about amonth to repair due to the location of the accident.

12 Novembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Alaric collides with a jetty.

18 Novembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Rorqual experiences a fire.

26 Novembre 1958 - Base Chennault dell'Air Force, Lake Charles, Louisiana, USA. Un aereo C-124 che trasporta una bomba nucleare senza la sua capsula fissile si schianta durante il decollo, distruggendo completamente l'aereo e la bomba nucleare. Si ha una quantità limitata di contaminazione immediatamente sotto alla bomba distrutta, tale da non impedire, fortunatamente, operazioni di salvataggio o di spegnimento.

28 Novembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Caesar suffers a fire.

23 Dicembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Undaunted collides with the minesweeper HMS Maxton off Cyprus.

30 Dicembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyers HMS Jutland and HMS Dunkirk collide during day time maneuvers off Malta, causing slight damage.

30 Dicembre 1958 - Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA: criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio Plutonium solutions were inappropriately combined into a single vessel for mixing. When stirring of the tank began, a criticality excursion occurred which ended as the contents became more fully mixed. An operator who was viewing the tank received a dose to his upper body of 12,000 rem and died 36 hours later. Two others were exposed to doses of 134 and 53 rem but suffered no ill effects.

31 Dicembre 1958 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In the late 1950s, a Soviet Northern Fleet diesel-powered submarine, possibly a Whiskey class submarine, reportedly sinks. The vessel was specially converted to be a test platform for a Soviet cruise missile, which was under development. The submarine went to sea carrying empty missile containers and sankon its return voyage.

FINE 1958 - Alla fine del 1958, gli esperimenti nucleari hanno prodotto sul pianeta circa 65 chili di stronzio 90, con una radioattività totale di 8,5 milioni di curie; la radioattività del cesio 137, alla stessa epoca, ammonta a 15 milioni di curie. Il fall out degli esperimenti americani e britannici, di grande potenza, e tutti. senza eccezione, in località nei pressi dell'equatore, si sono distribuiti uniformemente sull'intero globo. Tra il 1952 ed il 1957, gli USA hanno eseguito 90 test nel poligono nucleare del deserto del Nevada. Queste esplosioni hanno rilasciato una quantità di iodio 131 superiore di dieci volte a quella che si è sprigionata dalla centrale di Chernobyl. Gli stessi test hanno esposto mediamente ogni cittadino statunitense ad una radiazione pari a 2 rad (quelli provenienti dalla radioattività naturale ammontano a soli 0,24 rad annuali). Alcuni medici hanno calcolato che circa 10.000 tumori alla tiroide sono la conseguenza di questa pioggia contaminante invisibile. Fra 5.600 anni, ci sarà ancora sulla terra la metà del carbonio 14 prodotto da tali esperimenti, mentre il periodo di dimezzamento degli isotpi liberati dalle bombe H è 2di 4.000 anni per il plutonio 239 e di 720 milioni di anni per l'uranio 235.

11 Gennaio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Valley Forge (CVS-45) is damaged in a storm off North Carolina.

18 Gennaio 1959 - A grounded F-100 interceptor carrying a nuclear weapon without its fissile core burst into flames when its external fuel tanks were inadvertently jettisoned during a practice alert. The plane was carrying a payload of one nuclear weapon and three external fuel tanks. The fire was doused in about seven minutes and there were no contamination or cleanup problems.

28 Gennaio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The port propeller of the USS Skate (SSN-578) is damaged in a collision with the USS Cubera (SS-347). The accident occurs during routine operations off the U.S. east coast just after the Cubera delivered mail to the Skate and moved away. The Navy says nobody was hurt.

2 Marzo 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A depth charge explodes aboard the USS Conway (DD-507) in the Atlantic, injuring two.

5 Marzo 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Kenneth D. Bailey (DDR-713) and the USS Haiti Victory (T-AK-238) collide in the Strait of Gibraltar,
killing one.

16 Marzo 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyers HMS Corunna and HMS Barrosa collide.

7 Aprile 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Triton (SSN-586) suffers a galley fire caused by testing of a deep-fat fryer, while in New London, Connecticut. According to the Navy, the fire spread from the galley into the ventilation lines of the crew's mess. But quick action by crew members "resulted in the saving of the ship's equipment and possible loss of life."

9 Aprile 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is damaged by fire in Devenport, U.K., while undergoing a refit.

9 Aprile 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The U.S. Navy announces the USS Raton (SSR-270) and the USS George K. Mackenzie (DD-836) recently collided during maneuvers in the western Pacific.

13 Aprile 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : three small fires aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle.

1 Maggio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Randolph (CVA-15) suffers a flash electrical explosion at the Norfolk Naval Base, Virginia, killing one.

21 Maggio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy boom defense vessel HMS Barnard runs aground.

21 Maggio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Rocket collides with a buoy.

28 Maggio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy FJ Fury jet crashes aboard the USS Essex (CVA-9) east of Jacksonville, Florida, causing explosions and fire, killing two, and injuring 21.

18 Giugno 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy submarine depot ship HMS Maidstone suffers a fire.

30 Giugno 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The starboard rudder guard of the USS Macon (CA-132) is scraped off in the Welland Canal (connecting Lake Erie to Lake Ontario), delaying shipping for 17 hours.

6 Luglio 1959 - Base Barksdale dell'Air Force, Dossier City, Louisiana, USA. Un aereo C-124, che trasporta una bomba nucleare senza la sua capsula fissile, si schianta durante il decollo, distruggendo completamente l'aereo e la bomba nucleare. Si producce una quantità limitata di contaminazione immediatamente sotto alla bomba distrutta, tale da non impedire, fortunatamente, operazioni di salvataggio o di spegnimento.

8 Luglio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Birmingham and destroyer HMS Delight collide during exercises off Malta, killing two.

11 Luglio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Gearing (DD-710) is damaged after colliding with a freighter in Chesapeake Bay.

26 Luglio 1959 - Santa Susana Field Laboratory, California, USA: un reattore raffreddato al sodiosubisce una fusione parziale del nocciolo. Secondo Makhijani, presidente dell' Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, "Le misurazioni di Iodio 31 sono state da 80 a 100 volte più importanti di quelle rilevate a Three Mile Island".

31 Luglio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Upshur (AP-198) is heavily damaged by fire at the Brooklyn Army Terminal, New York.

11 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Broadsword suffers a fire off Iceland.

13 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet warship, believed to be a destroyer shadowing NATO maneuvers, collides with the West German coastal vessel Christelin fog 30 miles off Kiel, West Germany. The Soviet ship reportedly stands by with its engines stopped while the Christel's crew works to plug a hole, then steams off when the Christel is out of immediate danger.

15 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Navy discloses that a ruptured water pipe aboard the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) partly flooded a compartment while the ship was submerged off Newfoundland four months ago. No injuries resulted.

18 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) is heavily damaged by an explosion and subsequent fires when a helicopter engine explodes while beingtested in hangar bay Number 1 as the ship is operating 250 miles east of Norfolk, Virginia. The fires and reflashes take over two hours to control. The ship was carrying nuclear weapons. In the first 30 minutes as the fires burned out
of control and the forward magazines were flooded, preliminary preparations also were made to flood the nuclear weapon magazine. It was not flooded, however, and 30 minutes later the nuclear weapon magazine reported no significant rise in temperature. But water from the fire-fighting efforts eventually leaked into the nuclear weapon magazine around electrical cables.

25 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy F8U Crusader jet crashes into the rear of the USS Independence (CVA-62) off Norfolk, Virginia, killing one man and causing a fire.

27 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Hogue is involved in a collision.

29 Agosto 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Decatur (DD-936) suffers an engine room fire while docked in Naples, Italy. The fire is extinguished after two hours during which the ammunition stores are flooded as a precautionary measure.

29 Agosto 1959 - Napoli, Italia. Catastrofe sfiorata per incendio a bordo del caccia Decour

9 Gennaio 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diving tender HMS Deepwater suffers a fire.

25 Settembre 1959 - Whidbey Island, Washington, USA. Un aereo P-5M della marina degli Stati Uniti trasportante una bomba nucleare di profondità disarmata della capsula fissile, si schianta a Puget Sound vicino Whidbey Island, Washington. La bomba non è mai stata ritrovata.

29 Settembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bristol (DD-857) collides with the Italian merchant vessel Italia Fassio in fog in the Nantucket Shoals area off Massachusetts. The Bristol is slightly damaged.

4 Ottobre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tench (SS-417) runs aground on a mudbank in Portsmouth, U.K. The submarine is lifted off the mudbank without damage.

4 Ottobre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) collides with the USS Pawcatuck (AO-108) during refueling off Virginia. Both vessels are slightly damaged.

5 Ottobre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Seadragon (SSN-584) on the surface at night during its sea trials collides with a whale, or possibly a large shark, off Portsmouth, New Hampshire, bending one of its propellers. The submarine proceeds to Portsmouth for repairs on its own power using its other propeller.

7 Ottobre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Redpole collides with an oil lighter, sustaining an eight-foot hole in its bow.

15 Ottobre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: "Apparently intentional" damage to electrical cables of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) is discovered during overhaul at the naval shipyard in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The Navy says the damage appears to confined to the electrical system and "does not extend to the nuclear reactor plant." The Navy disclosure of the incident follows an article in the Portsmouth Herald which reports a series of incidents involving "sabotage-type" damage to the craft including fires, cut cables, brokenpipes, and other damage to vital parts.

15 Ottobre 1959 - Hardinsberg, Kentucky, USA. Un bombardiere B-52 entra in collisione con un KC-135 durante un rifornimento in volo. Fra i rottami dell'areo vengono ritrovate una bomba intatta ed una parzialmente bruciata.

4 Novembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Willis A. Lee (DL-4) suffers a fire after an explosion of an anti-aircraft round during exercises off Newport, Rhode Island.

6 Novembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Threadfin (SS-410) is rammed by the Greek freighter Nikolas Mikhalos at the entrance to the Suez Canal as both ships are exiting to the Red Sea.

8 Novembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The Soviet cruiser Sverdlovsk collides with the German coastal vessel Hilda Rebecca in the Kiel Canal. The Sverdlovsk continues into the Baltic while the Hilda Rebecca has tobe beached for repairs.

9 Novembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A fire is discovered in the pump room of the USS Midway (CVA-41) at the Subic Bay Navy Base, Philippines. Arson is blamed for the incident.

27 Novembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Tiger suffers a fire.

16 Dicembre 1959 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Searcher (AGR-4) reaches Boston, Massachusetts, safely under tow after being disabled at sea for five days with boiler trouble.

1960 - Lincolnshire, Gran Bretagna. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). A RAF weapon load carrier forming part of a convoy experienced a brake failure on an incline and overturned. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

1960 - USSR: ingestione di materiale radioattivo An individual suffered injury from injestion of 2 millicuries of radium bromide, resulting in death 4 years later.

11 Gennaio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An arresting gear cable aboard the USS Independence (CVA-62) breaks as an aircraft lands while the ship is operating off the Florida coast, killing one.

4 Febbraio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Eleven men are swept overboard from the USS Daly (DD-519) during sea trials 200 miles off the Virginia coast, killing seven.

13 Febbraio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Skate (SSN-578) suffers "very minor" damage after colliding with a concrete pier at Electric Boatyard, Groton, Connecticut.

13 Febbraio 1960 - Reggane (Algeria): test nucleare. Prima Bomba atomica francese

28 Febbraio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In late February in the Atlantic the USS Triton (SSN-586), shortly after departure for a submerged global circumnavigation, suffers a leak in a main condenser circulating water pump, necessitating the shut down of the port reactor for five hours to effect repairs.

1 Marzo 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In the beginning of March the USS Triton (SSN-586), while traveling down the Atlantic, springs a severe leak in its starboard propeller shaft due to loose bolts and an improperly installed water seal.

19 Marzo 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Darby (DE-218) collides with the Swedishore carrier Soya Atlantic off Cape Henry while returning from exercises off the Virginia Capes, killing two.

4 Aprile 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Narwhal runs aground in high winds off Scotland.

7 Aprile 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Shangri-La (CV-38) suffers an explosion of an air separator operated by a gasoline motor while near Valparaiso, Chile, injuring three.

24 Aprile 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Triton (SSN-586) suffers a serious casualty in the after torpedo room when a hydraulic line to the stern plane mechanism bursts just prior to the end of its global circumnavigation. Quick action by crew members prevents the accident from getting out of control. The leak is stopped and hydraulic poweris restored.

25 Maggio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) collides with the ore carrier Bernd Leonhardt off North Carolina. The accident touches off a jet fuel fire on the Saratoga which is quickly extinguished.

30 Maggio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) suffers an oil-fed flash fire at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia, where the carrier had docked after a collision on 25 May. The fire scorches the vessel's amid ships hull.

7 Giugno 1960 - Base McGuire dell'Air Force, vicino Trenton, New Jersey. Un missile BOMARC ("BO" per Boeing e "MARC" per Michigan Areonautical Research Center) per la difesa aerea, immagazzinato in uno stato di pronto utilizzo per permetterne il lancio in due minuti, viene distrutto dopo l'esplosione di un serbatoio con elio ad alta pressione e la rottura del serbatoio di carburante del missile. Anche se la testata viene distrutta dall'incendio, il dispositivo di sicurezza funziona correttamente e previene la detonazione della carica altamente esplosiva della bomba. Un articolo del New York Times descrisse, allora, uno scampato disastro nucleare, notando che il missile "si fuse sotto una fiamma intensa alimentata dal suo detonatore da 45,5 kg. di TNT... La testata atomica si sciolse apparentemente nella massa fusa che era rimasta del missile, il quale bruciò per quarantacinque minuti". Le radiazioni seguenti "furono causate quando la parte metallica di magnesio e ossido di torio, che forma parte della bomba, presero fuoco". Il rapporto del Pentagono affermò che fu contaminata solo l'area immediatamente sotto la bomba nucleare e, a causa del deflusso dell'acqua di spegnimento dell'incendio, anche un'area adiacente estesa per la lunghezza di circa 30 metri.

8 Giugno 1960 - URSS: sovraesposizione intenzionale A 19-year-old research worker at a radiological laboratory committed suicide by exposure to a cesium-137 source. He took a capsule containing the source from the laboratory and put it in his left pants pocket for 5 hours, then shifted it around his abdomen and back for 15 hours. His whole body dose was 1,500-2,000 rad, with 3,000 rad to the trunk. Symptoms of radiation sickness developed within hours, and he died after 15 days.

8 Giugno 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Sabotage is suspected in an incident involving damage to a shipyard fire hose used on board the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) for testing the ship's evaporators while the ship is undergoing overhaul at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, New Hampshire. The Navy says, "No damage occurred to the ship."

14 Giugno 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Sargo (SSN-583) suffers an explosion and fire in itsaft end while docked in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The fire starts from a leak in a high-pressure line that was pumping oxygen aboard. The explosion occurs a few moments later. When dock unitsand boats are unable to bring the fire under control quickly, officers take the Sargo a short distance from the dock and deliberately submerge it with the stern torpedo hatch open to put out the blaze. The Navy says the ship's nuclear reactors weresealed off, and there was "absolutely no danger of an explosion from the reactor compartment." The submarine is extensively damaged and is drydocked taking three months to
repair. The Sargo is the first nuclear ship in the Pacific Fleet and was scheduled to take the visiting King and Queen of Thailand on a cruise the next day.

Luglio 1960 - Il sottomarino USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600) tenta di sbarazzarsi della resina consumata del proprio sistema di demineralizzazione (utilizzato per eliminare le particelle ed i minerali radioattivi sciolti presenti nei circuiti refrigeranti primari). Il mezzo resta contaminato quando il vento rigetta la resina nella sua direzione.

19 Luglio 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ammen (DD-527) and USS Collett (DD-730) collide in heavy fog off Newport Beach, California. Eleven of the Ammen's crew are killed and 20 are injured, and the ship is damaged beyond repair.

10 Agosto 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Bennington (CV-20) and USS Edwards (DD-619) collide during refueling 175 miles off California. A Navy spokesman later says that the Edwards "apparently lost steering control" and its superstructure smashed into the Bennington's Number 3 elevator. The destroyer is extensively damaged while the carrier is only slightly damaged.

12 Agosto 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Exultant (MSO-441) suffers an oil fire in the engine room while operating off Georgia, killing five.

24 Agosto 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy minesweeper is swamped at Charleston, South Carolina.

28 Agosto 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : Unexplained engine room damage delays the sailing of the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Dainty. Sabotage is suspected.

14 Settembre 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Australian destroyer Anzuc accidentally fires a salvo into the hull of the Australian destroyer Tobruk opening a hole above the waterline during maneuvers off Australia.

5 Ottobre 1960 - Stati Uniti. Un guasto al radar di NORAD provoca uno stato di massima allerta per un imminente attaco nucleare nemico.

13 Ottobre 1960 - sottomarino K-8 , Mare di Barents: perdita da un reattore A reactor accident occurred aboard the USSR submarine K-8 while it was on exercises in the Barents Sea. The K-8 (hull 261) was a Project 627 (November) class submarine commissioned on 31 August 1960. On 13 October 1960 a loss of coolant accident occurred when a leak developed in the steam generators and an additional pipe. Equipment for dealing with the leak was also damaged. The crew improvised a system to restore coolant to the reactor. During this time radioactive gases leaked into the entire vessel; radiation levels exceeded the maximum sensitivity of available monitors. Three crew members suffered radiation injuries, with doses later estimated at 180-200 rem. The submarine was returned to service; on 12 April 1970 the K-8 sank in the Bay of Biscay off Spain following an onboard fire.

4 Novembre 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Cree (ATF-84) is accidentally bombed by a plane from the USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) during exercises in the western Pacific.

28 Novembre 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: About this date six men are soaked by reactor coolant while working on the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, New Hampshire. One man accidentally bumped a valve releasing the water onto himself and the others. Clothes and dosimeters were thrown away, making radiation measurement impossible.

Dicembre 1960 - I membri del Joint Strategic Target Planning americano, terminano il piano SIOP 62. Questo piano di guerra consiste nel lanciare più di 3.000 armi nucleari, comprese centinaia bombe H, per attaccare 1.000 bersagli differenti del blocco comunista, nelle prime ore del conflitto. Questo piano avrebbe dovuto esere sufficiente per uccidere un quarto della popolazione sovietica.

19 Dicembre 1960 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire breaks out on the hangar deck of the USS Constellation(CVA-64) in the last stages of construction at the New York Naval Shipyard. Reports list 50 dead and an estimated damage of $ 45million. A Navy court of inquiry investigation later finds there were 42 small fires earlier in the year. The fire delays the ship's commissioning by several months to 27 October 1961.

1961 - Svizzera: vernice di trizio An incident in Switzerland involving radiation exposure from tritium-containing paint caused one death from a 300-rem dose and significant exposures to two other individuals.

1961 - Plymouth, Gran Betragna: incidente radiografico X-ray overexposures caused localized injuries to possibly 11 individuals.

3 Gennaio 1961 - National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho Falls (USA). A seguito di un incidente (dalle cause sconosciute, anche se pare che sia per un errato ritiro delle barre) in un reattore sperimentale di Idaho Falls negli Stati Uniti, muoiono, durante l'esecuzione di attività di routine, tre tecnici (John Byrnes, Richard McKinley et Richard Legg). Il grado di contaminazione dei corpi dei deceduti risulta così alto che le teste e le mani vengono tagliate e sepolte in un deposito di scorie radioattive. Non noto il numero di intossicati dentro e fuori l'impianto. Il reattore viene smontato; il nocciolo di 13 tonnellate e la vasca vengono ritirati alcuni mesi dopo. The SL-1 reactor was a prototype of a reactor intended for easy assembly at remote facilities such as DEW line stations in the Arctic. It used 15 kg of uranium fuel (enriched to 91% U-235), was water moderated, and had a thermal power capacity of 3 MWt. Five aluminum-clad cadmium control rods provided reactor control. The SL-1 had operated 2 years, with an 11-day shutdown for maintenance being completed at the time of the incident. 
Three workers were reassembling the control rod drives on 3 January in preparation for startup the following day. At about 9:01 PM the three workers were on top of the reactor when one manually removed the center control rod as rapidly as possible, over a 0.5-second period. The reactor became supercritical, with a total energy release of 1.3 x 108 joules (comparable to 30 kg of TNT), producing a steam explosion. The worker who extracted the rod was killed instantly, impaled on the building's ceiling by a control rod. The other two men were burned and thrown by the steam explosion, one dying instantly from impact with a shielding block and the other sustaining head injuries of which he died 2 hours later (maximum dose sustained was possibly 350 rad). The release of radioactive material was largely contained to the building. 
Emergency responders were alerted by an automated alarm and arrived at the site at 9:10 PM. High radiation readings were measured in the reactor building, delaying entry. At 10:50 PM several responders and contractor personnel removed one man alive, who died shortly afterwards. One body was removed from the reactor building on 4 January and the other on 9 January. Of personnel/responders involved, 22 received doses of 3-27 rads from entering the building and/or handling the casualties. 
The reason that the control rod was withdrawn is unknown, since none of the workers survived and the facility did not have appropriate data recording systems. The control rods in SL-1 had some tendency to stick, sometimes causing difficulty during manual extraction. One hypothesis is that the worker accidentally withdrew the control rod too far in an effort to overcome a stuck condition. The amount of withdrawal involved was about 50 cm, possibly difficult to achieve accidentally, and the particular control rod involved had not been sticking for the past six months. Another hypothesis is that the rod was intentionally withdrawn in an act of murder-suicide; this was the conclusion of the investigation of the incident.

6 Gennaio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Sea Vixen helicopter crashes into the sea at night after a deck accident on the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royalwhile the ship is near Malta.

12 Gennaio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Oberon runs aground at Rothesay Bay in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, while maneuvering to tie up to a buoy. The Oberon is refloated the next day without damage.

14 Gennaio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Johnston (DD-821) and USS Keppler (DD-765) are slightly damaged in a "glancing collision" 200 miles off the North Carolina coast.

16 Gennaio 1961 - Air Force Base, Gran Bretagna. A nuclear bomber on round-the-clock alert crashed on takeoff causing spilled fuel to erupt into flames which engulfed the aircraft at an undisclosed USAF base in Britain. A nuclear weapon mounted on the aircraft's centerline pylon was badly damaged before the fire could be put out. According to secret correspondence to the Chairman of the U.S. Joint Commission on Atomic Energy (JCAE), the accident was so serious that the weapon was "scorched and blistered." The U.S. Government has never acknowledged the accident and it is not included on the DoD's list of broken arrows.

18 Gennaio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Brighton suffers a fire.

19 Gennaio 1961 - Monticello, Utah, USA. A B-52 bomber carrying one or more nuclear weapons was reported to have exploded in midair about 10 miles north of Monticello, Utah. The bomber had left Biggs AFB near El Paso, Texas, bound for Bismarck, North Dakota, on a routine "round-robin" training mission. Near Monticello the aircraft began climbing from 36,000 to 40,000 feet and soon experienced a violent bump followed by a descending right roll of about 410 degrees, a short period of wings-level, nose-down flight, and then a violent spin. The aircraft descended rapidly and at an elevation of 7,000 feet broke into several pieces that landed within an area two miles wide by 11 ½ miles long. Observers on the ground said the plane's left-wing engine caught fire, after which there was a midair explosion. Five crewmen were killed in the accident.

23 Gennaio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) suffers a fire caused by a ruptured oil line while in the Ionian Sea en route to Athens, Greece, killing seven.

24 Gennaio 1961 - Goldsboro, Nord Carolina, USA. Durante un allertamento aereo, un bombardiere B-52, che trasporta due bombe nucleari, a causa del cedimento strutturale dell'ala destra, va a pezzi a mezz'aria, uccidendo i tre membri dell'equipaggio: la conseguente rottura dell'aereo libera le due bombe nucleari da un'altezza di 600-3.000 m. Il paracadute di una delle due bombe si apre correttamente con danno finale minimo. Il secondo paracadute della bomba, invece, funziona male e la bomba si squarcia a pezzi nell'impatto con il terreno, spargendo i suoi componenti su un'area estesa. Secondo Daniel Ellsberg, la bomba avrebbe potuto accidentalmente esplodere perché "cinque dei sei dispositivi di sicurezza avevano fallito". Anche il fisico nucleare Ralph E. Lapp conferma questa ipotesi, sostenendo che "solo un unico interruttore" ha "impedito alla bomba di detonare e di spargere fuoco e distruzione sopra un'ampia area". il nucleo della bomba altamente arricchito di uranio non fu mai ritrovato. Allo scopo di prevenire qualsiasi scoperta della parte persa della bomba, l'aviazione acquistò il diritto d'uso dell'area in modo da vincolare alla propria autorizzazione eventuali permessi di costruzione o scavo nell'area stessa. I 24 megatono della bomba rappresentano una potenzialità magiore rispetto a tutto l'esplosivo usato in tutte le guerre della storia.

27 Gennaio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ticonderoga (CV-14) suffers a brief fire when a diesel generator blows up while the ship is at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California.

Fine Gennaio 1961 - Casa Bianca, Washington, USA. Il presidente degli Stai Uniti Kennedy, allertato sull'incidente a Goldsboro del 24 gennaio dello stesso anno, viene informato che vi erano stati più di 60 incidenti che coinvolgevano armi nucleari dopo il 1945, di cui due riguardanti missili antiarerei con testata atomica realmente lanciati per inavvertenza

3 Febbraio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Alaric strikes a sandbank and is grounded for 20 minutes near Sheerness off the east coast of the U.K.

2 Marzo 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Antarctic: The USS Glacier (AGB-4) and USS Staten Island (AGB-5) break free after being stuck in the ice in Antarctica for nine days.

14 Marzo 1961 - Vicinanze di Yuba City, California, USA. Un bombardiere B-52 con due armi nucleari, si schianta durante una missione di addestramento. Nessuna esplosione e nessuna contaminazione.

12 Aprile 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Finwhale arrives in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, with a six-by-two-foot hole in her casing caused by heavy seas in a gale as she sailed to the Arctic for underwater tests. A dent on the aluminum casing forward of the sail measures 20 by 6 feet.

25 Aprile 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A boiler explosion occurs aboard the USS Intrepid (CVS-11), injuring 11.

27 Aprile 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Diamond Head (AE-19) is holed above the waterline in a collision with the USS Independence (CVA-62) in the Caribbean.

30 Aprile 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Baldwin (DD-624) runs aground off Montauk Point, NewYork. One sailor is killed and one hurt when a steel cable whiplashes during an attempt to free the ship. The ship is subsequently scuttled.

4 Luglio 1961 - URSS, al largo delle coste della Norvegia. La fuoriuscita di radiazioni per un guasto al sistema di controllo di uno dei due reattori di un sommergibile atomico sovietico provoca la morte del capitano e di sette membri dell'equipaggio. Grazie al valore dell'equipaggio viene scongiurata la fusione delle barre di combustibile, avendo il nocciolo raggiunto gli 800°C. A reactor accident occurred on the USSR ballistic missile submarine K-19 while it was on exercises in the North Atlantic. The K-19 (hull number 901) was the lead ship of the Project 958 (Hotel I) class, launched 8 April 1959 and commissioned 12 November 1960; it carried three R-13 SLBMs. On 4 July 1961 a leak developed at an inaccessible part of the primary cooling circuit, causing a sudden pressure drop and triggering emergency systems. The crew improvised a system to supply coolant, involving prolonged exposure to radioactive steam and other gases in the reactor compartment. Eight crew members sustained doses of 5,000 to 6,000 rem; the rest of the crew sustained significant doses as well (at least 100 rem). A diesel submarine evacuated the crew, and the K-19 was towed back to the Kola Peninsula. For the eight crewmembers with fatal doses, time from exposure to death in days was 6, 6, 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, and 19. The remaining crew were hospitalized with radiation sickness until September. Replacement of the reactor compartment was completed from 1962 to 1964, and the two damaged reactors were dumped in Abrosimova Bay in the Kara Sea.

10 Luglio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The munitions ship Save runs aground and explodes off Mozambique.

14 Luglio 1961 - Siberian Chemical Combine, Russia: criticità di incidente con uranio An accumulation of uranium hexaflouride (with uranium enriched to 23.3% U-235) in a vacuum pump oil reservior caused a criticality excursion and set off radiation alarms. Operators failed to identify the cause of the radiation readings and resumed operations. An operator turned on the vacuum pump again, producing a criticality excursion accompanied by a flash of light; the operator turned off the pump and went to a telephone to alert a supervisor. He developed mild radiation sickness from a dose of 200 rad. The oil reservior was finally drained 18-19 July.

21 Luglio 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Angler (SS-240) is slightly damaged in a minor collision with the freighter Export Adventurer during maneuvers with a destroyer 15 miles south of Block Island, Rhode Island.

9 Agosto 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) suffers a boiler breakdown involving ruptured tubes at Norfolk, Virginia, just prior to its shake down cruise.

19 Agosto 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Broadsword suffers a damaged boiler.

26 Settembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy tanker catches fire and explodes while in port at Morehead City, North Carolina, killing one. Flames from the burning ship threaten seven huge storage tanks containing more than ten million gallons of high octane aviation fuel.

26 Settembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Charr (SS-328) suffers an engine room flood while submerged at 100 feet and operating 150 miles west of San Diego, California. Two sailors seal themselves in the flooded compartment and save the submarine and its 76 crewmen by manning the controls until the submarine surfaces.

16 Ottobre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Randolph (CVS-15) collides with the Liberian tanker Atlantic Viscountess 325 miles east of Charleston, South Carolina. The collision ruptures a gasoline line on the carrier causing a flash fire which is extinguished in less than five minutes.

31 Ottobre 1961 - Novaya Zemlya (Oceano Artico -URSS): test nucleare (Bomba Zar). FALLOUT: Da sola generò il 25% dei residui fissili dal 1945. La Bomba "Zar", la regina delle bombe, fu la bomba H più potente. Nacque dal lavoro del teorico Yakov Zeldovitch e dei fisici Andrei Sacharow, Vitali Ginzburg e Viktor Davidenko. La bomba venne lanciata da un bombardiere Tu-95 pilotato da A. E. Durnovtsev, diventato un eroe dell'Unione Sovietica. Il soprannome di "Bomba Zar" gli venne dato dagli americani per qualificare il progetto come inutile poichè esisteva già il cannone più grande al mondo, lo Zar Pushka. Si riporta che la bomba potesse infliggere ustioni di primo grado anche a 100 km. di distanza. La distruzione è totale in un raggio di 25 Km e le costruzioni sono seriamente danneggiate fino a 35 Km. di distanza dall'esplosione. Si ignora quali potrebbero essere i danni anche a più grandi distanze, ma è probabile che, in caso di vento i suoi effetti si sentirebbero anche a 1.000 Km. dal punto di impatto.

2 Novembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During its sea trials the USS Thresher (SSN-593) docks at San Juan, Puerto Rico. Its reactor is shut down and a diesel generator is started up to provide electricty in keeping with usual docking procedures. But after seven or eight hours of operation the diesel generator breaks down. While sailors work on the generator, electricity is provided by an electric storage battery. The generator takes much longer than expected to repair, however, and so the decision is made to restart the reactor. But, a nuclear reactor takes several hours and considerable electricity to restart, and the Thresher's battery is depleted before the reactor becomes critical. With no electricity to keep the ventilation system going, the submarine starts to heat up. Temperatures in the machinery spaces reach approximately 140 degrees. Some men are ordered out suffering from the heat and fumes, and the captain fears the heat and humidity could damage electrical equipment and lead to a general evacuation. Ultimately the problem is solved by hooking up electrical cables to the diesel-electric powered submarine Cavalla (SS-244) which is moored along side early the next morning. With electricity from the Cavalla, the Thresher's reactor is able to be restarted.

4 Novembre 1961 - Il rimorchio di un autocarro prende fuoco mentre trasporta una piccola quantità di materiale radioattivo. Pare che non ci sia stata alcuna contaminazione risultante dall'incendio.

6 Novembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A fire on the newly-commissioned USS Constellation (CVA-64)breaks out at sea, killing four and severely injuring nine.

5 Dicembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Falmouth collides with the naval auxiliary HMS Tide Flow during antisubmarine warfare exercises in Lyme Bay off the Dorset coast, U.K. The Falmouth is holed above and below the waterline, but returns to Portland, U.K., under its own power. The Tide Flow suffers superficial damage.

10 Dicembre 1961 - Nuovo Messico, USA. Un test sotterraneo con esplosione nucleare, libera nuvole impreviste di vapori radioattivi. Ciò causa la chiusura di alcune autostrade del Nuovo Messico.

21 Dicembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A rocket motor aboard the USS Meredith (DD-890) ignites and burns on its launcher, causing an intense fire of short duration, while the ship is at Mayport, Florida. The commander of the destroyer squadron to which the Meredith is attached says that safety features prevented the rocket from leaving the ship.

31 Dicembre 1961 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In 1961 an accident in the nuclear power plant of an early class of Soviet nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (probably a Hotel class) reportedly occurs near the coast of England while ship is returning from a training exercise. Crew members were seriously contaminated and parts of the ship and its missiles were also contaminated when a cooling pipe broke. The level of radiation is reported to have been five roentgens per hour in the space where the pipe broke. After a two-month ventilation of the submarine, a decision is made to transfer the missiles to two diesel-powered submarines for their test launches.

1962 - Cecoslovacchia. Uno studio dimostra che la miniera d'uranio di České Budějovice ha cusato la morte del'80% del bestiame per leucemie e deformazioni.

6 Gennaio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: Western intelligence sources report that a submarine belonging to the United States or another NATO power was damaged and forced to the surface by a 20-megaton underwater nuclear test blast set off by the SovietUnion in the Barents Sea. The detonation point is said to have been about 100 miles from the submarine whose commander is quoted as saying, "If we had been much closer we might not have survived."

16 Gennaio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers propeller damage when it runs aground in Plymouth Sound on its way through a deep water channel to the Devonport, U.K., dockyard.

31 Gennaio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle suffers unknown damage in an accident.

3 Febbraio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Carron suffers damage caused by sailors.

20 Febbraio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Balao (SS-285) is snagged by the tow-line of the ocean tug Torrent IV while cruising 110 feet below the surface off the Florida coast. The accident damages one of the Balao's mast headlights, punches two small holes in the superstructure supporting the periscope, and breaks one radar antenna and damages another. Neither the tug nor the barge under tow receives damage.

5 Marzo 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An aircraft arresting cable aboard the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) snaps while the carrier is en route from Guantanamo Naval Base, Cuba, to Norfolk, Virginia, killing one.

6 Marzo 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Monssen (DD-798) is grounded by a storm at Beach Haven, New Jersey.

12 Marzo 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Proteus (AS-19) suffers a brief fire during a weekend training cruise in the Irish Sea. The fire, which causes only slight damage, apparently started in a pile of rags.

21 Marzo 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Rothesay rams the Turkish diesel submarine Gur in the western Mediterranean during the NATO exercise "Dawn Breeze." Both ships suffer damage and proceed to Gibraltar.

21 Marzo 1962 - Mexico City, Messico: fonte radiografica compromessa In March 1962 a 10-year-old boy discovered a 5-Ci cobalt-60 industrial radiography source, not in its shielded container. The boy carried the source in a pocket for several days, then it was placed in a kitchen cabinet in his home. Four family members died of resulting radiation sickness: the boy died 29 April (day 38), his mother on 19 July, his 2-year-old sister on 18 August, and his grandmother on 15 October. Radiation exposure was not identified as the cause of the deaths until July-August. The father survived with lesser symptoms. Estimated doses for the four who died were 4,700-5,200 rad, 3,500 rad, 3,000 rad, and 2,870 rad; dose to the father was about 990-1,200 rad.

26 Marzo 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Dreadnought suffers a fire in a cabin while the ship is under construction at Barrow-in-Furness, U.K.

30 Marzo 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS England (DLG-22) suffers an explosion and fire at San Pedro, California, injuring 18 workmen before the fire is brought under control.

7 Aprile 1962 - Hanford, Washington, USA: Criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio An accident at a plutonium processing plant resulted in a criticality accident. Plutonium solution was spilled onto the floor of a solvent extraction hood. Improper operation of valves allowed a mixture of plutonium solutions in a tank that became supercritical, prompting criticality alarms to sound and subsequent evacuation of the building. Exact details of the accident could not be reconstructed. The excursion continued at low power levels for 37.5 hours, during which a remotely controlled robot was used to check conditions and operate valves. Criticality was probably terminated by precipitation of plutonium in the tank to a non-critical state. Three people had significant radiation exposures (110, 43, and 19 rem).

9 Aprile 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610) collides with the USS Wadleigh (DD-689) during antisubmarine warfare exercises 200 miles east of Norfolk, Virginia. The Edison's topside rudderis slightly bent and the destroyer's forward bottom platesare pierced. The Edison is repaired at Newport News, Virginia, in several hours while the Wadleigh goes into drydock for several weeks. According to a Navy spokesman the collision resulted from a misunderstanding between the two ships and occurred as the Edison was surfacing. No one is injured.

11 Aprile 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire breaks out in the rudder section of the USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610) at Norfolk, Virginia. The fire is caused by the heat from a workman's acetylene torch and is brought under control within 30 minutes.

29 Aprile 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A British Gannet aircraft crashes on the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal while the ship participates in a SEATO exercise in the South China Sea, killing one.

1 Maggio 1962 -Béryl, Sahara. La Francia effettua il suo secondo test nucleare sotterraneo, ma la montagna Taourirt che doveva contenere l'esplosione, si fissura e libera una nuvola radioattiva che contamina diversi militari ed ufficiali.

3 Maggio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : Police investigate damaged electrical cables on the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle. Further damage is found the next day.

10 Maggio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Permit (SSN-594) is run over by the cargo ship Hawaiian Citizen while the Permit is on a submerged test runnear the Farallon Islands 30 miles from San Francisco, California. A Navy spokesman said the only damage to the submarine was a bending of the doors to the conning tower. The crew had to force the doors open to raise the radio antenna to
communicate with freighters standing by.

3 Giugno 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Thresher (SSN-593) is damaged in a collision with a commercial tug that was berthing it at Port Canaveral, Florida, receiving a three-foot gash in the submarine's ballast tanks about a foot below the waterline. The submarine went to New London, Connecticut, under its own power to effect repairs.

4 Giugno 1962 - Oceano Pacifico. La testa nucleare di un'ogiva di un booster di un razzo Thor cade nell'Oceano Pacifico prima che avrebbe dovuto distruggersi il booster.

6 Giugno 1962 - Nevada Test Site, Area 10 (USA): test nucleare a 190 m. di profondità. FALLOUT: 12 milioni di tonnellate di cui 8 fuori dal cratere (Magnitudine Ritcher).

7 Giugno 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. destroyer USS Sumner runs aground off Golfe Juan in the Mediterranean during a wind storm

9 Giugno 1962 - USA: test nucleare Truckee ad una altezza di 2.091 m.

15 Giugno 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Blackpool suffers damage caused by a sailor.

20 Giugno 1962 - Oceano Pacifico. La testa nucleare di un'ogiva di un booster di un razzo Thor cade nell'Oceano Pacifico prima che avrebbe dovuto distruggersi il booster (identica situazione di 16 giorni prima)

25 Giugno 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Tiru (SS-416) suffers a fire which forces the vessel to make an emergency surfacing 15 miles south west of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with 18 men suffering from smoke inhalation. A malfunction of a practice torpedo in the torpedo room caused the fire.

30 giugno 1962 - USA: test nucleare Bluestone ad una altezza di 1.494 m

1 Luglio 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy F8U Crusader aircraft crashes into the USS Ranger (CVA-61) at sea off California, injuring two.

1 Agosto 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Battleaxe collides with the frigate HMS Ursa in the Clyde river, Scotland, during the night. The Battleaxe is subsequently scrapped.

28 Agosto 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A British Meteor aircraft hits the mast of the Royal Navy minesweeper HMS Appleton while exercising off Malta. The aircraftis piloted safely to Luqa airport, Malta.

29 Agosto 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers a galemishap.

Settembre 1962 - USA. Per ridurre la vulnerabilità degli Stati Uniti di fronte ad un attacco atomico, il presidente J.F. Kennedy consiglia agli americani di costruire dei rifugi antiatomici. La sua lettera pubblicata a settembre dal giornale "Life" darà luogo ad una vera "shelter mania" che durerà un anno. Ancora oggi, centinaia di americani dispongono di un rifugio antiatomico.

13 Settembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Japanese fishing boat collides with a submarine, believed to be Soviet, and sinks off Northern Japan.The crew of 16 escapes on rafts and rubber boats.

4 Ottobre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Ashanti breaks down during sea trials in the Caribbean Sea.

9 Ottobre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Danish diesel submarine gets caught in the net of a British fishing trawler. The submarine surfaces with damage to neither vessel and apologies were exchanged.

10 Ottobre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Triton (SSN-586) suffers a fire during repairs in New London, Connecticut. A spokesman for Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation said there was only minor damage to one compartment and that no one was injured. He said no radioactivity was involved. The cause of the fire was said to be undetermined.

13 Ottobre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Odin touches the bed of the English Channel at 150 feet five miles south of Portland Bill during a night exercise, damaging the rudder. The submarine is towed back to Portland harbor, U.K.

15 Ottobre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The New York Times reports that one of six Soviet diesel-powered attack submarines operating in the Caribbean during the Cuban missile crisis experiences mechanical trouble and is unable to submerge except for short periods. On 15 November the Associated Press reports that a Canadian Air Force patrol plane sighted the Soviet submarine off Halifax still unable to submerge. It eventually returns to the Soviet Unionon the surface with a trawler escort.

16/29 Ottobre 1962 - Crisi di Cuba. E' la crisi dei missili. Gli Stati Uniti scoprono che Fidel Castro ha fatto installare dei missili russi a Cuba. Kennedy e Krushev lavorano di democrazia. I russi ritirano i missili e gli americani le loro truppe dalla Turchia.

25 Ottobre 1962 - Base Volk Field, Wisconsin, USA. Un campanello d'allarme indicante l'inizio di una guerra nucleare con l'Unione Sovietica comincia a suonare accidentalmente durante l'apice della crisi dei missili cubani. I piloti corrono ai loro aerei dotati di armi nucleari, pronti a partire quando l'errore viene individuato da un ufficiale nel posto di comando. Ai piloti è ordinato di ritornare.

25 Ottobre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The New York Times reports that well before the Cuban missile crisis a mechanical breakdown occurred in a Soviet diesel-powered submarine in the Gulf of Alaska. The submarine could not submerge and was escorted home by a trawler.

5 Novembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) and USS Mattaponi (AO-41) are slightly damaged in a collision during refueling off California.

14 Novembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) and the USS Holder (DDE-819) collide during refueling while in the Atlantic while taking part in the U.S. quarantine of Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis.

20 Novembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Centaur suffers a steam leak in the boiler room, killing five.

26 Novembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Albion collides with a tug in Aden harbor, Aden. The tug sinks with two missing.

2 Dicembre 1962 - Marietta, Georgia, USA. Un treno per Louisville e Nashville deraglia mentre trasporta componenti di armi nucleari. Il materiale non risulta danneggiato, ma tre corrieri rimangono feriti.

3 Dicembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) and the SS Oriana collide indense fog off Long Beach, California. The Oriana suffers a 20-foot hole near its bow and the Kearsarge suffers a 25-foot rip about ten feet aft on the starboard side.

14 Dicembe 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Otter rams a trawler off Plymouth, U.K. The crew of the trawler abandon ship and are rescued by a nearby launch.

31 Dicembre 1962 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: During 1962, the engine room of the USS Skate (SSN-578) begins to flood after a sea water circulation line fails while the submarine is submerged at 400 feet on the way through Baffin Bay off Thule, Greenland. Seawater sprays in and starts to flood the engine room. The submarine does not lose power and surfaces safely. On the surface, with the water pressure greatly reduced, the flooding is successfully stopped.

1963 - Lincolnshire, base RAF, Gran Bretagna. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). A rear trolley of a nuclear weapon transport became unhitched. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

1963 - Lincolnshire, South Yorkshire, Gran Bretagna. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Brake failure on a nuclear weapon load carrier. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

1963 - A partire dal 1963, 131 ricoverati della prigione di stato dell'Oregon, vengono pagati 200 dollari ciascuno dalla Commissione dell'Energia Atomica (AEC), per permettere l'irradiazione dei loro testicoli

3 Gennaio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Core (AKV-41) runs aground in heavy fog off Fort Baker under the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, California.

11 Gennaio 1963 - Sanlian, Cina: fonte compromessa A 10-curie cobalt-60 source from an industrial seed irradiator was removed from a buried waste repository and taken to a residence by a child. Six family members were exposed to the source over 5-9 days, and another relative (the child's uncle) for 9 hours during an overnight stay. Three family members (two children and the mother) exhibited symptoms within 8 days. The child and a brother sustained the largest doses; one died after 12 days of an 8,000-rem doses, the other after 11 days of a 4,000-rem dose. The mother sustained an 800-rem dose and recovered, although a skin ulcer on one leg failed to heal despite multiple skin grafts, and the femur of that leg sustained a pathological fracture 10 years later requiring surgery. One brother, aged 20, sustained a dose of 600 rem and was left sterile. The sister, aged 13, sustained a dose of 400 rem; she eventually had two children, one of whom was severely mentally retarded. The uncle sustained a whole body dose of 200 rem but a localized dose of up to 20,000 rem to one leg, which was amputated 5 years later.

15 Gennaio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A jet fighter attempting to land snaps a cable aboard the USS Constellation (CVA-64) while the ship is operating in the eastern Pacific, injuring 11, including three whose legs have to be amputated.

9 Febbraio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In the mid-Atlantic a wave washes over the Number 1 elevator on the USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) while the elevator is in the down position. Four men are washed over board. Two are rescued, but one later dies.

20 Febbraio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An aircraft crash aboard the USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) sweeps the carrier's deck with fire while it is operating in the Atlantic, killing two.

28 Febbraio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Baussell (DD-845) runs aground off Djakarta, Indonesia, prior to a scheduled visit to that city. The ship is refloated four days later.

11 Marzo 1963 - Sarov, Russia: criticità di incidente con assemblaggio di plutonio A critical experiment assembly was being assembled without proper checking procedures. The assembly included a plutonium core with a neutron source in the center, all surrounded by a lithium deuteride reflector. While experimenters were assembling it, a criticality excursion occurred producing a flash of light. At that point the experimenters left the room and the assembly table was manually lowered from the control room (the automatic scram system was not operating). Two experimenters received doses of 370 and 550 rem, respectively. Both experienced radiation sickness and recovered (the first lived to 1989, the second was still alive in 1999).

13 Marzo 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The side of the USS Valley Forge (CV-45) is slightly damaged by a fire when an oil film on the water is ignited by sparks from a welder's torch at Long Beach, California.

1 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Tabard collides with a wharf damaging its sonar equipment while berthing in Brisbane, Australia.

1 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : In April the Royal Navy mine layer HMS Manxman runs aground.

1 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Grampus returns to Gosport, U.K., after spending three weeks under the polar icecap looking for holes in the ice. During the patrol it superficially damages its hull on the ice.

5 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Great Sitkin (AE-17) suffers slight damage during a fire of unknown origin while tied up at the Main Ship Repair Corporation in Brooklyn, New York.

5 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CVA-61) suffers an explosion and fire in theboiler uptakes while en route from Beppu, Japan, to Iwakuni, Japan.

8 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unidentified submarine becomes entangled in the nets of the trawler Sunappee off New England and drags overboard about $3,000 worth of fishing gear.

10 Aprile 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Thresher (SSN-593)sinks in approximately 8,400 feet of water 220 miles east of Boston while conducting post-overhaul trials, killing all 129 men on board. The Navy Court of Inquiry concludes a flooding casualty in the engine roombrought about by a piping system failure in one of the submarine's saltwater systems is the most probable cause of the sinking. The Thresher is never recovered

10 Aprile 1963 - Ad est di Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Il sottomarino nucleare americano Thresher affonda con 129 persone a bordo nelle acque dell'Atlantico a 350 chilometri dalle coste della nuova Inghilterra. L'inchiesta accerterà che l'unità era in missione priva delle adeguate misure di sicurezza.

Maggio 1963 - Mandan, Dakota du Nord, USA. Si registra la più alta concentrazione mai registrata nrgli USA(fino al 2003) di stronzio 90 nel latte, probabilmente dovuta al sito nucleare di Hanford.

4 Maggio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Diamond suffers an engine room fire.

7 Maggio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire occurs aboard the USS Flasher (SSN-613) at the Electric Boat shipyard, Groton, Connecticut, killing three and injuring two. Damage to the ship is reportedly negligible. The fire occurred in the trimming tank of the submarine, scheduled to be launched on 14 June.

8 Maggio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Woodrow Wilson (SSBN-624) suffers a fire while under construction at Mare Island Naval Shipyard i Vallejo, California, injuring three. The fire causes only minor damage to the Wilson and occurs when a heavy cable comes in contact with a switchboard on the submarine.

8 Maggio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The submerged Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Tabard collides with the Royal Australian Navy frigate Queensborough off Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia, during exercises. The submarine suffers superficial damage and a bent finand returns to Sydney.

22 Maggio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Devonshire suffers engine trouble.

29 Maggio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A flash fire breaks out in the boiler room of the USS Blandy(DD-943) shortly after it arrives in Portland, Maine, to participate in Memorial Day exercises.

4 Giugno 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Asterion (AF-63) and the Japanese freighter KokokuMaru collide.

7 Giugno 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tinosa (SSN-606) collides with the USS John Adams (SSBN-620) while being moved in the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, New Hampshire, when a tug towline snaps. The Tinosa received, what the Navy said, was a "small dent below thewaterline" in the bow.

10 Giugno 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Rorqual is caught in a trawler's net.

4 Luglio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Salmon (SS-573) suffers personnel casualties when mercury from a broken thermometer comes into contact with a hot grid, creating toxic mercury vapor, resulting in the intoxication of 14 crewmembers.

22 Luglio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS William C. Lawe (DD-763) rams and sinks a U.S. Navytug when the tug loses steering control and crosses into the path of the destroyer in the St. John's River near Jacksonville, Florida.

27 Luglio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. freighter Irish Spruce strikes the docked USS Pratt (DE-363) at Norfolk, Virginia.

29 Luglio 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Leopard is in a collision.

2 Agosto 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Tingey (DD-539) and USS Vammen (DE-644) collide during a Naval Reserve exercise 200 miles off southern California. The Tingey is partly flooded from a deep gash in its starboard side and the Vammen suffers a damaged bow, but both ships make it back to their homeports.

15 Agosto 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A F3H Demon aircraft lands on the fouled deck of the USS Saratoga (CVA-60) while the ship is operating in the Mediterranean, killing two and seriously injuring nine. Fifteen aircraft sustain damage.

19 Agosto 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Constellation (CVA-64) suffers an arresting gear accident while operating in the western Pacific.

27 Agosto 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Grayback (SSG-574) suffers a serious fire in the after crew's berthing as a result of a casualty to the main propulsion circuit breaker while operating in the northern Pacific, killing one man and injuring five.

10 Settembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS McDermut (DD-677) collides with the USS Gregory(DD-802) during night antisubmarine warfare exercises off southern California. The McDermut suffers damage to its bow and the Gregory suffers a split in her starboard side to themain deck.

21 Settembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Grouse (MSCO-15) runs aground on Cape Ann, Massachusetts. After attempts to free the ship fail, the Grouse is destroyed by fire.

26 Settembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire breaks out in a fuel system of the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Centaur at the Portsmouth naval base, U.K., killing one.

27 Settembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Barry (DD-933) accidently discharges a torpedo into the deck house of the USS Decatur (DD-936) moored along side in Newport, Rhode Island. There are no injuries or significant damage.

3 Ottobre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Medregal (SS-480) is struck by an MK-37 torpedo fired by the USS Sabalo (SS-302) during exercises. Damage is not major.

9 Ottobre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Caliente (AO-53) and USS Nereus (AS-17) collide in the San Diego, California, operating area during refueling exercises. Both ships are damaged.

18 Ottobre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Porpoise collides with the aircraft carrier HMS Centaur when it is caught by an ebbtide and drifts broadside on to the bows of the berthed carrier while leaving Portsmouth harbor, U.K. The submarine suffers superficial damage.

24 Ottobre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Roberts (DE-749) collides with the Swedish ore carrier Luossa inside the Baltimore, Maryland, harbor in dense fog. The Roberts suffers minor flooding due to a small gash in its starboard quarter.

13 Novembre 1963 - Commissione per l'Immagazzinamento dell'Energia Nucleare negli Igloo, Base Medina, San Antonio, Texas, USA. I componenti dell'alto esplosivo (HE "High esplosive") di una bomba atomica (che tre lavoratori stanno smontando), cominciano a bruciare spontaneamente, provocando una grande esplosione che coinvolge circa 55 kg. di HE. L'esplosione causa una piccola contaminazione.

29 Novembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy tanker and a runaway barge each loaded with gasoline collide at New Orleans, Louisiana, putting an eight-foot gash in the side of the tanker.

16 Dicembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Essex (CVS-9) en route to the United States is struck by two heavy waves while west of the Azores, causing a radar mast to snap. The mast falls to the deck, damaging both the radar and aircraft.

20 Dicembre 1963 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The second Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Valiant suffers a fire at the Vickers-Armstrong Yard at Barrow-in-Furness, U.K., while the ship is fitting out after being launched on 3 December. The fire is in the reactor compartment in a wooden structure where workers change their clothing. Mr. R. M. Nicholson, the shipyard general manager, says there is no nuclear hazard since the core of the reactor was not installed.

1964 - Prima esplosione nucleare cinese

1964 - Garigliano (Italia). Guasto al sistema di spegnimento di emergenza del reattore.

1964 - Germania, Repubblica federale: vernice di trizio An incident in West Germany involving radiation exposure from tritium-containing paint caused one death from an exposure of 1,000 rad and 3 other significant exposures.

4 Gennaio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Trump tows a yacht.

10 Gennaio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39) loses 41 feet of its catwalkin a storm in the Virginia Capes area.

10 Gennaio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Tiptoe runs aground in the Clyde River, Scotland, coincidently right in front of the house of the area's senior naval officer.

13 Gennaio 1964 - Cumberland, Maryland, USA. Un bombardire B- 52, con due missili nucleari a bordo, si schianta al suolo. A B-52D bomber carrying two nuclear weapons crashed approximately 17 miles southwest of Cumberland, Maryland. The nuclear weapons were being transported in a tactical ferry configuration, meaning that no mechanical or electrical connections had been made from the bombs to the aircraft. The bomber was en route from Westover Air Force Base in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, to its home base at Turner Air Force Base in Albany, Georgia, when it encountered violent turbulence. During an altitude change from 29,500 to 33,000 feet, the aircraft encountered more violent air turbulence and suffered structural failure. Both weapons were recovered relatively intact.

14 Gennaio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cable ship HMS Bullfinch runs aground.

24 Gennaio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes suffers a fire, believed to be caused deliberately.

31 Gennaio 1964 - Salisbury, Pennsylvania and Frostburg, Maryland, USA - Accidental loss and recovery of thermonuclear bombs. A B-52 on airborne alert duty encountered a severe winter storm and extreme turbulance, ultimately disintegrating mid-air over South Central Pennsylvania[23]. Only the two pilots survived. One crew member failed to bail out and the rest succumb to injuries or exposure to the harsh winter weather. A search for the missing weapons was initiated, and recovery was effected from portions of the wreckage at a farm northwest of Frostburg, MD.

9 Febbraio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Blue Jacket (T-AF-51) collides with the German fishing boat Coaster Dirk, killing six of the fishing boat's seven-member crew.

10 Febbraio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Australian Navy destroyer Voyager sinks after colliding with the Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne off NewSouth Wales, killing 82.

16 Febbraio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An A3J Vigilante aircraft crashes aboard the USS Hornet (CVS-12) operating in the Pacific before the barricade could be rigged, killing the pilot and injuring two crew members.

3 Marzo 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Newman K. Perry (DD-883) collides with a sulfur barge in Tampa Bay, Florida, sinking the barge and flooding the destroyer from stem to Frame 8.

11 marzo 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Searcher (AGR-4), on station off the U.S. east coast, loses a propeller in heavy seas. A Coast Guard ship takes theSearcher in tow.

27 Marzo 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Antares (T-AKR-294) suffers a fire 40 miles off North Carolina.

1 Aprile 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During night flight operations, the Number 3 elevator of the USS Randolph (CVS-15) tears loose from its mountings, dropping five men and a S-2F Tracker antisubmarine warfare plane into theAtlantic. Only three men are rescued.

2 Aprile 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Harlan R. Dickson (DD-708) runs aground a mile eastof Deer Island Light off Boston, Massachusetts. The ship is refloated in two hours with damage to screws, the sonar dome, and plating.

2 Aprile 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Nubian is in a collision.

4 Aprile 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS General Simon B. Buckner (AP-123) collides with a Liberian freighter in high winds in the harbor at Upper Bay, New York.

16 Aprile 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Mission San Antonio (AO-119) and a small South Korean fishing craft collide off the west coast of Korea in foggy weather. There is no damage to the tanker and five Koreans are rescued, but two are killed.

21 Aprile 1964 - Un satellite di navigazione americano manca la propria orbita e rientra nell'atmosfera a 150.000 piedi al di sopra dell'Oceano Indiano. Il generatore nucleare del satellite contiene 17 KCi di Plutonio 238, che brucia almeno parzialmente prima di rientrare nell'atmosfera. Quattro mesi più tardi si rileva un aumento del tasso di Pu238 nella stratosfera. Si stima che circa 16kCi di Pu 238 si sono dispersi nell'atmosfera fino al 1970. Secondo l'EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), la contaminazione in Pu 238 dei polmoni umani (0,06 mrem) dovuta al laancio fallito è sesibilmente inferiore a quella risultantedalle ricadure degli esperimenti delle armi nucleari negli anni 1950 (0,35 mrem). A U.S. Transit-5BN-3 nuclear-powered navigational satellite failed to reach orbital velocity and began falling back down at 150,000 feet (46 km) above the Indian Ocean. The satellite's SNAP generator contained 16 kCi (590 TBq) of 238Pu, which at least partially burned upon reentry. Increased levels of 238Pu were first documented in the stratosphere four months later. The EPA estimated the abortive launch resulted in little 238Pu contamination to human lungs (0.06 mrem or 0.6 µSv) compared to fallout from weapons tests in the 1950s (0.35 mrem or 3.5 µSv) or the EPA's Clean Air Act airborne exposure limit of 10 mrem (100 µSv).[24][25] All subsequent Transit satellites were fitted with solar panels

6 Maggio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39) and USS Decatur (DD-936)collide in the Atlantic 150 miles east of Cape Henry, Virginia.The Decatur sustains heavy damage to itssuperstructure, but there are no personnel injuries.

22 Maggio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Cavalier is damaged in a collision.

3 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39) collides with the Norwegian freighter Skauvaag in the Chesapeake Bay. There are no injuries.

12 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) suffers a major propulsion system casualty while participating in an exercise about 160 miles southwest of Sasebo, Japan. The casualty results in the loss of 50 percent propulsion capability.

12 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Puma suffers a fire.

13 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire damages the hull of the USS Haddock (SSN-621) still under construction at Pascagoula, Mississippi. Captain John B. Guerry, supervisor of shipbuilding for the Navy, said no radioactive material was installed in the Haddock.

13 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire slightly damages the USS Randolph (CVS-15) while theship is in Norfolk, Virginia.

26 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Diamond collides with the frigate HMS Salisbury.

28 Giugno 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sea Leopard (SS-483) suffers a fire in the forward engine room during overhaul at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia.

1 Luglio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Henry Clay (SSBN-625) runs aground on a shoal in themouth of the James River and is pulled free an hour later by two tugs. The submarine was en route from Newport News, Virginia,across Hampton Roads to pick upDeputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vance in Norfolk, Virginia. No damage is reported.

23-24 Luglio 1964 - Charlestown, Rhode Island, Usa. Incidente al reattore Wood River: un morto The accident occurred at a facility which reprocessed for recovery highly enriched uranium in scrap material from fuel element production. A tank containing uranium (93% U-235) in sodium carbonate solution was being agitated by a stirrer. A worker, intending to add a bottle of trichloroethane to remove organics, erroneously added a bottle of uranium solution to the tank, producing a criticality excursion accompanied by a flash of light and the splashing of about 20% of the tank's contents (about 10 liters out of 40-50 liters, including the bottle contents) out of the tank. The worker fled to the site's emergency building. Two plant administrators returned to the building; one turned off the agitator, producing a lesser criticality excursion that was not recognized until their dosimeters were examined. The administrators incurred doses of 100 rads and 60 rads. The worker absorbed about 10,000 rads and died 49 hours after the accident.

26 Luglio 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A suddenly intensifying storm causes damage to three navy ships anchored in Buckner Bay, Okinawa. The USS George Clymer (APA-27) and the USS Eldorado (AGC-11) collide after dragging their anchors, and the USS Weiss (APD-135) is grounded
whenthe anchor chain parts. There are no injuries.

15 Agosto 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy depot ship HMS Tyne experiences a flooded magazine.

5 Settembre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Lion collides with the frigate HMS Lowestoft.

11 Settembre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A rocket motor used to boost aircraft explodes aboard the USS Constellation (CVA-64) while the ship cruises in the South China Sea, killing one and injuring three.

12 Settembre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : Flooding damages the command ship USS Wright (CC-2), the National Emergency Command Post Afloat, including the steering compartments so that the ship has no rudder control and can only maneuver with the aid of tugs.

29 Settembre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) sustains damage to its Number 1 propeller during normal operations in the Mediterranean. The USS Independence (CVA-62) relieves the Roosevelt on Mediterranean duty and it returns to the U.S.to drydock.

29 Settembre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An explosion aboard the USS Sproston (DD-577) in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is caused by a short circuit during work on an indicator light. The propellant in a rocket ignites and the magazineis flooded to prevent further damage. Three people areextensively burned.

8 Ottobre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Three U.S. Navy officers and three Filipino civilian workers arekilled in an explosion and fire aboard the floating drydock AFDM-8 at Guam.

13 Ottobre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers an electrical fire when an electrical circuit is tested, which in turnignites some cardboard boxes in a storeroom, while the ship isin a Devonport, U.K., dockyard undergoing a refit.

15 Ottobre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Keppel suffers damage.

16 Ottobre 1964 - Poligono di Lop Nor, provincia di Sinkiang, Cina. La Cina fa esplodere la sua prima bomba atomica.

3 Novembre 1964 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Canadian aircraft carrier Bonaventure suffers an explosion and fire in a refrigeration unit while the ship is undergoingrefit in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, killing one dock worker and injuring four.

5 Dicembre 1964 - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rapid City, South Dakota. A retrorocket located below an LGM 30B Minuteman I missile's Reentry Vehicle (RV) fired while two repairmen were working nearby, sending the reentry vehicle crashing down to the bottom of its silo. The arming and fusing/altitude control subsystem containing the RV's batteries were torn loose on impact, removing all sources of power from the RV and causing it considerable damage. The missile's safety devices operated properly and did not allow the warhead to become armed. The Minuteman I was on strategic alert.

8 Dicembre 1964 - Base Bunker Hill (ora Grisson) dell'Air Force, Perù, Indiana, USA. Un bombardiere B-58 perde il controllo ed esce dalla pista durante la fase di decollo, causando un incendio ad una parte delle cinque bombe nucleari presenti a bordo. Non seguono detonazioni e la contaminazione è limitata all'area circostante l'incidente.

1965 - Illinois, USA: incidente di irraggiamento An accident at an industrial accelerator-type irradiator exposed one person to a localized dose of 29,000-240,000 rad. Radiation injury required amputation of one arm and one leg.

Metà anni '60 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Undated but after 1964 when it was commissioned -- The USS Von Steuben (SSBN-632) suffers a reactor scram while the diesel engine is disassembled for maintenance. Large amounts of electricity are needed for areactor restart, and the battery is
exhausted without restartingthe reactor. The submarine wallows on the surface for at leastseveral hours as the diesel motor is reassembled by flashlight.

1965 / 1980 - Stati Uniti. Dal 1965 al 1980 sono stati trafugati almeno 300 chili di 235U e 70 di 239Pu dagli impianti nucleari statunitensi

Gennaio 1965 - Livermore, California, USA. Un incidente al Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory libera 300 kCi di sostanza radioattiva (gas di trizio)

9 Gennaio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Ethan Allen (SSBN-608) collides with the Norwegian freighter Octavian in the eastern Mediterranean while at periscope depth. The U.S. Department of Defense says "damage was negligible," no casualties occurred, and both the submarine andthe freighter continued on their way afterexchanging identification.

16 Gennaio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Whitehurst (DE-634), a Naval Reserve Training Ship,collides with the Norweigian freighter Hoyander at the entrance of Vancouver harbor 2,500 yards west of the Lions Gate Bridge, British Columbia, Canada, in dense fog at night as bothships are leaving the harbor. Both ships are grounded and the Whitehurst is holed in the stern. The Whitehurst is refloated the next day.

27 Febbraio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A plane from the USS Midway (CVA-41) is inadvertently shot down by a USS Preble (DLG-15) missile when it overflies the missile range during southern California maneuvers for the "Silver Lance" exercise. The pilot is killed.

15 Aprile 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CVA-61) suffers an engine room fire off South Vietnam, killing one.

16 Giugno 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Hartley (DE-1029) collides with the Norwegian merchant man Blue Master off Cape Henry, Virginia. Its engine roomfloods as a result and the Hartley is towed to Norfolk, Virginia, by the USS Kiowa (ATF-72).

20 Giugno 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes suffers damage toa number of gauges while the ship is undergoing a major refit at Devonport, U.K. Sabotage is suspected.

9 Luglio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Orpheus is in a collision.

13 Luglio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Medregal (SS-480) collides with the Lebanese merchant ship The Rodos in the South China Sea suffering some damage in international waters 18 miles south of Hainan island. TheU.S. Department of Defense says the submarine was on routine operations, but China claims the incident took place within its territorial waters.

14 Luglio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Tiptoe collides with thefrigate HMS Yarmouth.

17 Luglio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Frank Knox (DDR-742) runs aground on Pratas Reef inthe South China Sea while underway to Taiwan. The ship is pulled free on 22 August.

21 Luglio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Devonshire suffers an engine fault.

24 Luglio 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The fishing trawler Snoopy explodes apparently after snagging a torpedo off the North Carolina coast, killing eight.

26 Agosto 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Shangri-La (CVA-38) and USS Newman K. Perry (DD-883) collide off Sardinia, killing one sailor and injuring another on the destroyer. The Perry's bow is crushed and twistedto starboard. Both are repaired at Naples and return to duty with the Sixth Fleet.

22 Settembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The United Kingdom announces that HMS Dreadnought, its first nuclear-powered submarine, will be with drawn from service due to metal failures which involve hairline cracks in its internal bulkheads. The submarine returns to service on 2 February 1966 modifications are made to the hull.

Ottobre 1965 - Rocky Flats Plant, nord ovest di Denver, Colorado, USA. Un incendio durante un rifornimento di carburante di un aereo espone 25 persone ad un limite di radiazione, 17 volte superiore a quello legale.

11 Ottobre 1965 - Base Wright-Patterson dell'Air Force, vicino Dayton, Ohio, USA. Un aereo C-124 da trasporto contenente componenti di armi nucleari e un modello per l'addestramento, prende fuoco mentre viene rifornito. Il fuoco comincia a bruciare nella parte finale del rimorchio di rifornimento e distrugge la fusoliera dell'aereo. Non ci sono vittime e le conseguenze del pericolo di radiazioni sono minime.

12 Ottobre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) and the French merchant man Charles le Borgne collide off southern France. The carrier sustains little damage and continues its participation in"Lafayette IX," a two-day bilateral U.S.-French exercise inthe western Mediterranean. The merchantman sustains minor structural damage and proceeds under its own power to Marseilles escorted by the USS Douglas H. Fox (DD-779).

13 Ottobre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Barb (SSN-596) and USS Sargo (SSN-583) collide while on maneuvers 15 miles west of Oahu, Hawaii. Minor damaged resulted to the forward end of one submarine and to the mast and sailof the other, but there were no injuries and both
ships returnedto port under their own power.

29 Ottobre 1965 - Isola Amchitka, Nord Pacifico, Alaska (USA). Test nucleare, con la detonazione di una bomba da 80 kiloton (Long Shot), nel sottosuolo dell'isola ad una profondità di 700 metri.

30 Ottobre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers a firein a boiler room, which causes considerable damage to wiring and other equipment and puts the ship out of operation for three weeks while the ship is undergoing routineoverhaul in a Singapore dockyard.

5 Dicembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: At 2:50 p.m. local time, while the USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14)is en route from operations off Vietnam to Yokosuka, Japan, an A-4E aircraft of Attack Squadron 56 loaded with one B43 nuclear weapon goes overboard. The aircraft was being rolled from theNumber 2 Hangar Bay to the Number 2 Elevator when it rolled offthe elevator with the pilot Lieutenant Junior Grade D. M. Webster and the bomb and sank in 2700 fathoms of water. Searchers fail to find the pilot.The Department of Defense states this accident took place "morethan 500 miles from land" when it reveals the accident in 1981. However Navy documents show the accident occurred about 80miles east of the Japanese Ryukyu Island chain and 250 milessouth of Kyushu Island, Japan, and about 200 miles east of Okinawa.

5 Dicembre 1965 - Isole Ryukyu (Giappone). Un jet militare d'attacco americano A-4E Skyhawk con a bordo una bomba all'idrogeno B-43 scivola in mare dalla portaerei statunitense Ticonderoga vicino alle isole giapponesi Ryukyu. Il pilota, l'aereo, e la bomba scompaiono. La bomba viene perduta approssimativamente ad una profondità di circa 5.000 m., ed i funzionari del Pentagono temono che l'intensa pressione dell'acqua possa causare l'esplosione della bomba B-43 all'idrogeno. E' ancora sconosciuto se l'esplosione sia davvero avvenuta. L'aereo della portaerei Usa Ticonderoga era di ritorno da una missione nel nord del Vietnam, a conferma dell' introduzione di armi nucleari nella Guerra del Vietnam. La scoperta dell'incidente avvenne solo nella metà degli anni 80.

6 Dicembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bushnell (AS-15) suffers a major fire in the Gulf ofMexico. The fire is extinguished with the aid of the USS Penguin (ASR-12).

7 Dicembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Fire breaks out in a machinery room on the USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) in the South China Sea, killing two and injuring 28. Anammunition magazine is flooded as a precautionary measure.

13 Dicembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An aircraft fuel tank ruptures on takeoff from the USS Independence (CVA-62) starting a fire 220 miles southeast of Norfolk,Virginia, injuring 15.

20 Dicembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Dreadnought suffers a fire in its control room while undergoing repairsat Rosyth, Scotland. It is quickly put out by the crew.

30 Dicembre 1965 - Mol, Belgio: criticità di incidente con uranio in acqua The VENUS research reactor used uranium dixoide fuel rods containing 7% enriched uranium in a tank of water; at the time of the accident, 30% of the water was heavy water. During manipulation of control rods, an operator erroneously began extracting a control rod before reinserting another. The operator observed a glow in the bottom of the reactor, immediately dropped the control rod and left the room. His left foot, which was over the reactor at the time of the accident, absorbed 1750-4000 rem and had to be amputated; the dose to his chest was about 500 rem.

31 Dicembre 1965 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Mid 1960s -- the New York Times (5/25/75) reports that ata mid-1960s briefing on a naval intelligence gathering operation, codenamed Holystone, a U.S. official is shown a photograph ofthe underside of a Soviet Echo class nuclear powered submarine apparently taken inside Vladivostock harbor. He recalls being told the submarine scraped the bottom of a Soviet Echoclass submarine and knocked off some of its equipment during this mission. Briefing participants are told this happened at least two other times as well (see 5/25/75 entry).

1966 - Belgio. Il fisico Ferdinand Janssen intossicato viene portato all'ospedale Curie di Parigi.

14 Gennaio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS General Daniel I. Sultan (T-AP-120) suffers extensive hull damage and a ruptured fuel tank when it runs aground in shoal water west of Okinawa. No casualties are reported. The Sultan is refloated on 15 January.

17 Gennaio 1966 - Palomares (Spagna). Un B-52 statunitense con quattro bombe all'idrogeno B-28 entra in collisione con un aereo cisterna durante il rifornimento in volo (il bombardiere stava attendendo il suo terzo rifornimento con un aereo cisterna KC-135 dalla base americana a Morton, quando il boccaglio del braccio per il rifornimento dell'aereo cisterna urta il bombardiere. Il braccio squarcia il B-52 lungo il suo dorso, spezzando il bombardiere in vari pezzi. I 151.00 litri di rifornimento del KC-135 vanno a fuoco, uccidendo sette uomini dell'equipaggio). I due aerei precipitano e tre bombe a idrogeno (bombe H) cadono nei pressi di Palomares, mentre la quarta cade in mare. L'esplosivo di due delle tre bombe, a contatto col suolo, detona spargendo su una vasta area plutonio e altro materiale radioattivo (4,5 kg di plutonio su 250 ettari). I rottami dell'incidente cadono in un'area approssimativamente di 161 km. quadrate di suolo e acqua. In tre mesi vengono raccolte 1.400 tonnellate di terra e vegetazione radioattiva che vengono portate negli Stati Uniti. Mentre i militari statunitensi sono forniti di tute protettive, gli spagnoli continuano a vivere tranquillamente e a coltivare i terreni. Un monitoraggio effettuato nel 1988 su 714 abitanti ha rivelato in 124 di loro una concentrazione di plutonio nelle urine di gran lunga superiore ai livelli normali. La bomba affondata nel Mediterraneo ha dato luogo ad una delle più grandi ricerche e operazioni di recupero nella storia. La ricerca durò circa otto giorni e impiegò 3.000 uomini del personale della marina e 33 navi, senza contare le barche, gli aeroplani, e il personale usato per portare l'equipaggiamento sul luogo. Benché il piccolo sottomarino "Alvin" avesse localizzato la bomba dopo due settimane, non fu recuperata prima del 7 aprile.

19 Gennaio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An "actual nuclear incident" occurs when the nuclear warhead on a Terrier anti-air missile separates from the missile and drops about eight feet on the USS Luce (DLG-7) while the ship is docked at Mayport Naval Station, Florida. It is
recorded "therewere no personnel casualties, and aside from the dent in the warhead, no equipment was damaged."

22 Gennaio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The missile tracking ship USS American Mariner (AGM-12) runsaground off Cape Kennedy, Florida.

23 Gennaio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy tank landing ship (LST) explodes while docked in Kawasaki, Japan, killing four Japanese workers.

27 Gennaio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) is extensively damaged during a stormin the Caribbean.

4 Febbraio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Brinkley Bass (DD-887) and USS Waddell (DDG-24)are heavily damaged in a collision while forming for operations in the Gulf of Tonkin.

11 Marzo 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Summit County (LST-1146) runs aground while enteringthe inner harbor at Chu Lai, South Vietnam, puncturing the hull plating and flooding the main engine room.

23 Marzo 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Juno suffers a fire.

5 Aprile 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Alamo (LSD-33) and USS Kawishiwi (AO-146) collide during underway replenishment at sea.

21 Maggio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) and the USS Iwo
Jima (LPH-2)brush briefly in San Diego, California, causing slight damage.

22 Maggio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy survey ship HMS Vidal collides with the freighter Hong Kong Fair in the mid-Atlantic. Both are damaged, but stay afloat.

27 Maggio 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Mars (AFS-1) is slightly damaged in a collision withthe merchant ship Seiwa Maru in dense fog at the entrance to Tokyo Bay, Japan.

3 Giugno 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Galatea is in a collision.

4 Giugno 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Banner (AKL-25) collides with the Soviet vessel Anemometer in the Sea of Japan. Both ships suffer minor damage.

25 Giugno 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: USS Stalwart (MSO-493) explodes, burns, capsizes, and sinksat a pier in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The minesweeper is later towed to Norfolk, Virginia.

29 Giugno 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Cambrian's accidental firing ona Hong Kong village is investigated.

2 Luglio 1966 - Mururoa (Oceano Pacifico - Francia). Test nucleare: viene fatta esplodere una bomba nucleare di 30 chilotoni, più potente della bomba all'uranio che sconvolse Hiroshima.

10 Agosto 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : Cracks in welds are discovered in the Royal Navy nuclear-poweredattack submarine HMS Valiant during the final stages of its construction at Barrow-in-Furness, U.K. British steel firms say the cracks do not represent a serious structural failure and are not dangerous to the vessel or its crew.

11 Agosto 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Tiger fires a dummy shell into adock wall.

19 Agosto 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The USS Raleigh (LPD-1) bumps the cruise liner France atthe Hudson River pier in New York City, none are hurt.

30 Agosto 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Rorqual suffers an explosion off Mozambique while en route to Singapore, killing two and injuring 20.

Settembre 1966 - Livermore, California, USA. Fuga di plutonio al Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

1 Settembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Devonshire is in a collision.

14 Settembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The West German training diesel submarine Hai sinks in the North Sea in 140 feet of water 175 miles northwest of Wilhelmshaven, West Germany, during a storm, killing 19.

15 Settembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The HMS Resolution, the Royal Navy's first Polaris nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, is launched at Barrow-in-Furness, England. A week later cracks are reported to be found inthe steel hull similar to cracks found in other nuclear submarines built in Britain. The cracks occur in thick steel welding. The Navy has known about the cracks ever since it was discovered that the original specification for steel for the submarines was not of high enough standard. The cracks do not mean the submarines will not go to sea, but if there are too many the metal will have to be rewelded. And, if cracks develop quicker than expected, Polaris submarines would require excessive amounts of welding when they come in for refits between patrols.

16 Settembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Relentless suffers a fire.

24 Settembre 1966 - Fangataufa, Polinesia Francese (Oceano Pacifico): test nucleare

Ottobre 1966 - Lagoona Beach (Usa). Alcune piastre di protezione si staccano e bloccano il circuito di raffreddamento del reattore autofertilizzante Enrico Fermi (61 Mw) per cui si ha surriscaldamento; il dispositivo di arresto automatico non funziona; il reattore riprende la sua attività soltanto nel 1970; e nel 1972 viene fermato definitivamente.

5 Ottobre 1966 - Monroe, Michigan (USA). Parziale meltdown alla Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station per cattivo funzionamento del sistema di raffredamento al sodio. Contaminazione contenuta. Rimessa in funzione nell'ottobre 1970

5 Ottobre 1966 - Detroit (USA). Il nucleo di un reattore sperimentale situato in un impianto vicino a Detroit si surriscalda a causa di un guasto al sistema di raffreddamento.

26 Ottobre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A major fire on the USS Oriskany (CVA-34) occurs while the carrier is operating off Vietnam. The fire starts when a crewman panics and throws a flare, which had accidently ignited while being moved, into a storage locker located at the forward starboard corner of Hanger Bay 1.The locker contains some 650 other flares, which ignite in turn. The resulting fire takes three hours to control, kills 44, destroys or damages six aircraft, and puts the carrier out ofaction for several months.

3 Novembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Tiru (SS-416) runs aground on Frederick Reef in theCoral Sea and is freed on 6 November.

4 Novembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A flash fire occurs in a storage compartment containing oil andhydraulic fluid four decks below the hangar deck of the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) while the ship is on station in the South China Sea, killing seven.

10 Novembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) collides with the USS Essex (CVS-9) while running submerged about 350 miles east of Morehead City, North Carolina, during underway replenishment exercises. Both ships return to port unassisted. The submarin ereceives extensive damage to its sail area and goes to New London, Connecticut. The carrier sustains an open hull cut in the bow area and proceeds to Norfolk, Virginia.

7 Dicembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Manley (DD-940) suffers an accidental shell explosion and small fire while in South Vietnam, injuring three.

30 Dicembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Mahnomen County (LST-912) runs aground at Chu Lai, South Vietnam. The ship is decommissioned and abandoned on 31 January 1967 after four weeks of unsuccessful salvage efforts.

31 Dicembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: In the late 1960's (1966-67 according to some accounts), the Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin experiences a reactor meltdown according to raw CIA intelligence reports, or at least a"nuclear related casualty" according to the U.S. Navy.The CIA reports suggest that up to 30 people may have died and many others were affected by radiation sickness. The ship is abandoned for over a year before work to replace the Lenin's three reactors with two begins.

31 Dicembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, around 1966, a leak occurs "in the reactor shielding of a [Soviet] nuclear submarine home based in Polyarnyy" on the Kola Penisula. "As the submarine entered the port the captain requested permission to proceed directly to the shipyard. Permission was not granted but the captain took the vessel there none the less.... A 'special brigade'was formed to repair the submarine and part of the crew was sent to a special center on
an island near Murmansk where navalpersonnel with radiation sickness were sent to be treated.... Those sent to the island did not come back."

31 Dicembre 1966 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, the Soviet November class nuclear-powered attack submarine, Leninskyj Komsomol, burns near the North Pole sometime in 1966-68. "The accident involved crew members being burned inside a bulkheadthat was locked from the outside on both sides. The fire was caused by a spark of oxygen and did not involve the propulsion unit." The submarine was saved. The submarine "was one of severalsubmarines which reached the North Pole under ice.The expedition was publicized in the Soviet press at the time without mention of the incident."

1966-1977 - Europe: 10 terrorist incidents against European nuclear installations

1967 - Trino Vercellese (Italia). Fessurazione di una guaina d'acciaio di una barra di combustibile con conseguente chiusura della centrale per 3 anni. Per buona parte di questo tempo la centrale ha scaricato nelle acque del Po trizio radioattivo.

1967 - Francia. Fusione di elementi combustibili nel cuore del reattore di Siloe (Grenoble). Ciò provoca la liberazione di Iodio 131 e Cesio 137 nell'acqua di raffreddamento del reattore. Si liberano gas radioattivi nell'aria.

3 Gennaio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Caprice suffers a breakdown.

10 Gennaio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Amphion is in a collision.

15 Gennaio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The South Korean destroyer-escort Chungnam-Ho and ferry Hanil-Ho collide off South Korea, sinking the ferry, killing atleast 13, with over 60 missing.

15 Gennaio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy minesweeper is hit by the freighter Muifinh in Saigon harbor, South Vietnam, and sinks.

27 Gennaio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Essex (CVS-9) runs aground during training operations five miles off Puerto Rico.

2 Febbraio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS McMorris (DE-1036) and USS Tombigbee (AOG-11) collide during a training exercise 75 miles southeast of Honolulu, Hawaii, killing two and injuring seven.

4 Febbraio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Clamagore (SS-343) collides with the catamaran Mango outside of San Juan harbor, Puerto Rico.

11 Febbraio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Walrus suffers a fire.

15 Febbraio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarines HMS Orpheus and HMS Opportune collide at the entrance to Portsmouth harbor, U.K., in darkness and heavy weather.

9 Marzo 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy river patrol boat is rammed by a British freighter and split in two in the Saigon channel, South Vietnam.

13 Marzo 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS London suffers a fire.

17 Marzo 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A five-inch artillery shell accidently explodes aboard the USS Manley (DD-940), causing a fire and injuring five off Da Nang, South Vietnam.

21 Marzo 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS La Salle (LPD-3) and the Israeli freighter Deganya are in a minor collision in fog off Cape Henry, Virginia.

24 Marzo 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) and the USS Salamonie (AO-26) collide while refueling east of San Juan, Puerto Rico. No one was injured, but both ships took "moderate damage."

20 Aprile 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An explosion occurs in a gun mount aboard the USS Bigelow (DD-942) operating in the Vietnam area, injuring six.

Maggio 1967 - Dumfries and Galloway, Scozia: parziale meltdown. Graphite debris partially blocked a fuel channel causing a fuel element to melt and catch fire at the Chapelcross nuclear power station. Contamination was confined to the reactor core. The core was repaired and restarted in 1969, operating until the plant's shutdown in 2004

10 Maggio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: During joint maneuvers of Japanese and U.S. fleets taking placein the Sea of Japan the Soviet Kotlin class destroyer Besslednyi scrapes the USS Walker (DD-517) despite repeated warnings not to get too close. Both ships suffer minor damage.

10 Maggio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Hampshire suffers an explosion.

11 Maggio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: For the second time in two days a Soviet destroyer and the USS Walker (DD-517) collide in the Sea of Japan. This second incident occurs when the Soviet destroyer "turned into and toward" the Walker, and, according to the U.S. Department of Defense announcement, the two ships "brushed together." The United States delivers what the Department of State describes as asevere protest over the incident, which again involved a Navy task force conducting antisubmarine warfare exercises.

26 Maggio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Warspitesuffers a water leak in one compartment while undergoing routine maintenance in Faslane, Scotland. The U.K. Ministry of Defense says the "defect is not connected in
any waywith her nuclear plant. Her damage is slight and there are no casualties. The leakage of water was brought quickly under control by Warspite herself."

28 Maggio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A 750-lb. bomb explodes during a loading operation on a Vietnam-bound ship at the U.S. Navy ammunition shipping piers at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, Port Chicago, California.

1 Giugno 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In June the Royal Navy assault ship HMS Intrepid suffers anoverheated starboard turbine, necessitating 12 weeks of repair in Devonport, U.K.

12 Giugno 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Repose (AH-16) is superficially damaged and the USSTappahannock (AO-43) is slightly damaged when they collide during routine underway replenishment operations off Vietnam.

16 Giugno 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) collides with the USS Platte(AO-24) during refueling west of San Francisco, California.

21 Giugno 1967: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Blackwood is damaged by ice floes.

22 Giugno 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A steam line ruptures aboard the USS Raleigh (LPD-1) as it is being repaired while the ship is moored at Norfolk Naval Air Station, Virginia, killing two.

29 Giugno 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Coconino County (LST-603) loses all propulsion and auxiliary power after suffering two underwater explosions while off-loading near Dong Ha, South Vietnam.

23 Luglio1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Greenling (SSN-614) strikes a buoy off Hingham, Massachusetts. There is only minor damage and little interuption totraining.

24 Luglio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy inshore minesweeper HMS Birdham suffers a fire.

29 Luglio 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Zuni rocket is inadvertently fired from one of several aircraft being readied for launch over Vietnam from the USS Forrestal (CVA-59). The rocket travels across the flight deck, strikesthe fully-fueleddrop tank of another aircraft, and explodes. The resulting firekills 134, damages or destroys 63 aircraft, and puts the ship temporarily out of action.

31 Agosto 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Simon Bolivar (SSBN-641) armed with 16 Polaris missiles collides with the target ship USS Betelgeuse (T-AK-260)when practicing a torpedo attack, 70 miles southeast of Charleston, South Carolina. No one is hurt, but the Bolivar suffers about $1 million damage to its periscope and communications antennae. The Betelgeuse suffers a hole in its hull. The Navy tells a press conference that the missiles aboard the Bolivar were not armed and there was no danger of explosion or nuclear radiation. The missiles were undamaged the Navy emphasizes. The Bolivar surfaces and the crew cuts away a 4-foot-high, 15-foot-long section of the conning tower so the submarine could proceed to port.

5 Settembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Corporal (SS-346) collides with the racing sloop Media IV in Block Island Sound off Rhode Island. The sloop's owner claims the submarine rammed the sloop and left without offering aid. The Navy says the submarine was stopped dead when hit.

10 Settembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) suffers a fire in the combat information center while in drydock at the South Boston Annex of the Boston Naval Shipyard, causing minor damage.

1 Ottobre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy assault ship HMS Intrepid sails for sea trials, but within 48 hours is forced to return to Devonport, U.K., when a leak develops in a steam pipe, taking five or six days torepair.

4 Ottobre 1967 - Harmarville, Pennsylvania, USA: incidente da irraggiamento A failure of interlocks on an industrial accelerator-type irradiator exposed three people to doses of 125-600 rem. The accident occurred at the Gulf Research Laboratory in Harmarville, near Pittsburgh. One worker received a 600-rem whole body dose, plus localized doses of 6600 rad to the feet and legs and 8800 rad to the hands and forearms. His hands and feet had to be amputated, but he survived largely due to a bone marrow transplant from his identical twin. Doses to the other workers were 300 rad and 125 rad. All three workers were protected from infection during recovery by reverse isolation.

18 Ottobre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy assault ship HMS Intrepid suffers a fault ina valve in her main engines, taking several days to repair.

26 Ottobre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lexington (CVS-16) hits a wharf three times in docking in New Orleans, Louisiana.

27 Ottobre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) suffers a rocket explosion whileoperating in the Tonkin Gulf, off Vietnam, injuring nine.

5 Novembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Repulse goes aground in Walney Channel, Barrow-in-Furness, U.K., 30 minutes after her launch at Vicker's shipyard. Seven tugs are required to pull her free. She thendocks at the fitting-out berth in Devonshire Dock, Barrow, U.K.

12 Novembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Victorious suffers a fire while at drydock in Portsmouth, U.K., wrecking part of the chief petty officers' mess and killing one.

21 Novembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Navy ships arrive at the scene of the grounding of the USS Clarke County (LST-601) at Duc Pho, Vietnam, observing that the ship is now perpendicular to the beach with the bow directly into the sea and the stern anchored by two army tanks.

24 Novembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. nuclear-powered cargo ship Savannah springs a leakin its reactor auxiliary cooling system off New Jersey. The Atomic Energy Commission and the Maritime Administration say no radioactive materials escaped as a result of theleak. The ship returned to Hoboken, New Jersey, for repairs.

24 Novembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Victorious suffers a fire, while in Portsmouth, U.K. It is confined to the tobacco store and damage is slight.

27 Novembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Diamond suffers a fire.

18 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) suffers a three-hour fire which was centered in an airplane tire stowage area while the ship is docked in Subic Bay, Philippines.

23 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) suffers a fire while docked in Sasebo, Japan, for the holidays, killing three and injuring two.

24 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Guardfish (SSN-612) runs aground on a reef in PearlHarbor, Hawaii. The Navy says the vessel rested on a World WarII bomb which turned out to be a sand-filled practice bomb.

25 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Observer (1/7/68) reports that speculation is circulating that a U.S. nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine suffered serious damage during maneuvers in northern waters just before Christmas. The U.S. Navy declines to confirm or deny the reports which come from unidentified sources at the U.S. Naval Base in Rota, Spain, due to security reasons. In London it was suggested the damage was caused by pressure changes during a deep dive.

26 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Lynde McCormick (DDG-8) suffers an explosion while in Sasebo, Japan, injuring two.

31 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : Before January 1968, the USS Ronquil (SS-396) reportedly narrowly avoids capture by Soviet naval forces while engaged in a Holystone intelligence gathering mission. The submarine caught fire near the Soviet coast and was surrounded by Soviet destroyers which attempted to force it to surface. The Ronquil eluded the Soviet ships and escaped to safety (also see 5/25/75 entry).

31 Dicembre 1967 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In 1967 a Soviet November class nuclear-powered attack submarine has a mishap in the Mediterranean believed to be related to its propulsion system. The submarine is towed.

1968 - Den Haag (Olanda). Per un «errore tecnico» si libera nella centrale Up 2 del materiale radioattivo. La radioattività nell'aria della città supera di 100 volte i limiti «accettabili».

1968 - Francia. Il reattore di Monts Arreé si arresta per un incidente. Periodo di riparazione: 3 mesi.

1968 - Un sottomarino nucleare sovietico affonda nel Pacifico

Gennaio 1968 - Chooz (Belgio). Grave incidente nel reattore ad acqua leggera. La riparazione è durata 2 anni e 2 mesi. Nel 1970 il reattore è guasto di nuovo.

9 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The London Times reports that the Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Resolution recently developed a defect in its electrical generator while on its final trials in the Atlantic before test missile firings at Cape Canaveral, Florida. On 8 January the submarine was on the surface sailing back to Faslane, Scotland, for repairs. U.K. officials said the repairs would not delay the Resolution's arrival at Cape Canaveral.

11 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French trawler Fomalhaut catches the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Grampus in its nets in the English Channel. The Grampus surfaces and both crews spend more than three hours disentangling the nets, officials said.

13 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Alliance runs aground and is stuck for three days on a rocky ledge off the Isle of Wightin the English Channel.

21 Gennaio 1968 - Thule, Groenlandia, Danimarca. Quattro bombe nucleari sono distrutte in un incendio dopo che il B-52 che le trasportava si schianta a circa sette miglia a sud ovest della pista della base dell'Air Force di Thule in Groenlandia. Il B-52, proveniente dalla base Plattsburgh dell'Air Force di New York, si schianta dopo che un incendio si era sprigionato nel compartimento dell'ufficiale di rotta. Il pilota stava facendo rotta all'AFB di Thule per provare un atterraggio di emergenza. All'impatto con il suolo, l'aeroplano scoppia in fiamme, bruciando gli involucri esterni dell'alto esplosivo che rivestivano almeno una delle bombe. L'esplosivo detona, spargendo plutonio e altri materiali radioattivi su un'area di circa 280 m. ad entrambi i lati della traiettoria dell'aereo, in pezzi delle dimensioni di un pacchetto di sigarette. Il bombardiere era stato in volo sulla rotta del Circolo Artico nell'ambito dell'operazione di permanente allertamento dello Strategic Air Command, chiamata in codice "Chrome Dome". Un membro dell'equipaggio rimane ucciso nello schianto. Il governo della Danimarca, che possiede la Groenlandia e proibisce le armi nucleari all'interno e sopra il suo territorio, fece una forte protesta e seguirono grandi dimostrazioni di piazza. L'area venne successivamente bonificata da oltre 500 uomini inviati dalla Danimarca e da 200 militari statunitensi. Degli operatori radar scoprono che una bomba H contrassegnata dal numero 78252 manca: avrebbe attraversato la calotta di ghiaccio e sarebbe precipitata in fondo al Mar Artico. La bomba viene ritrovata a fine mese. Nei venti anni successivi, 100 dei danesi che avevano partecipato all'intervento si ammalano di cancro, altri di gravi malattie tra cui la sterilità. Pochi giorni dopo l'incidente, il segretario della difesa degli Stati Uniti Robert McNamara ordinò la rimozione delle armi nucleari dall'allertamento aereo. Gli allertamenti stessi furono più tardi limitati e poi sospesi del tutto.

22 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Israeli diesel submarine Dakar with 52 aboard disappears in the eastern Mediterranean 250 miles off Israel. The USS Turner (DDR-834), USS Conyngham (DDG-17), and USS CharlesH. Roan (DD-853) are subsequently diverted to search for the missing submarine, but it is not found.

27 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French diesel submarine Minerve with 52 aboard sinks in the Mediterranean off Toulon.

30 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Seawolf (SSN-575) runs aground while submerged approximately 65 miles east of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and damages its rudder. There are no injuries and the submarine returns to Groton, Connecticut, for repairs.

31 Gennaio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Rowan (DD-782) is slightly damaged when it is struck by the Soviet merchant ship Kapitan Visiobokov in the Sea of Japan about 100 miles east of Pohang, South Korea. There are no casualties, but the destroyer suffers a three-foot hole above the waterline in the port bow.

1 Febbraio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Early 1968 (shortly after the Pueblo was seized on 22 January 1968) The USS Sergeant Joseph E. Muller (AG-171) loses power and drifts toward Cuban waters under emergency protection of combat air patrol. After several failures, the ship is towed to safety by its escorting destroyer.

6 Febbraio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy rescue ship sinks after being hit by an errant Bullpup missile launched from an A-4 Skyhawk aircraft during firing exercises near Point Mugu, California. There are no injuries.

6 Febbraio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bache (DD-470) drags anchor off Rhodes harbor, Greece, in hurricane force winds and runs aground on rocks, splitting the ship from stem to stern, but there are no serious injuries.On 17 February the ship suffers further damage
in a two-day storm. The ship is so badly damaged, rather than refloated it is decommissioned on 26 February.

10 Marzo 1968 - Oceano Pacifico. Il sottomarino russo K-219 affonda nel Pacifico a 1.200 km. dalle coste di d'Oahu nell'arcipelago delle Hawaii. A bordo ha tre missili nucleari e due siluri a testata nucleare.

18 Marzo 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600) runs aground while submerged off the coast of Scotland. There were no
injuries, but the bow of the submarine is damaged.

Aprile 1968 - Napoli, Italia. Il sottomarino nucleare Scorpion si contra, nel porto di Napoli, sbattendo la poppa e il propulsore nucleare contro una chiatta subito affondata

5 Aprile 1968 - Chelyabinsk-70, Russia: criticità di incidente con uranio in assemblaggio A criticality accident occurred with an assembly comprised of a highly enriched uranium sphere (90% U-235) with a polyethylene-filled cavity in the center, all to be surrounded by a natural uranium reflector. Two experimenters were conducting an experiment comparable to one conducted earlier in the day with no polyethylene in the core cavity, erroneously expecting little difference in the system performance. While lowering the upper hemisphere of the outer reflector, the system became critical and produced high power readings, prompting the emergency system to lower the lower hemisphere of the outer reflector, ending the excursion. The experimenters called for help and completed dose estimates. The individual closest to the assembly received a dose of 2000 to 4000 rem and died 3 days later; the other received a 500-1000 rem dose and died 54 days later.

9 Aprile 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Robert E. Lee (SSBN-601) snags the nets of the French trawler Lorraine-Bretagne in the Irish Sea, causing the trawler to lose considerable amounts of fishing equipment. The submarine is undamaged.

11 Aprile 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Soviet diesel-powered Golf class ballistic missile submarine sinks about 750 miles north west of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, inabout 16,000 feet of water, killing approximately 80. In late March 1975 numerous papers carry stories on the CIA's attempt, called "Project Jennifer," to raise the submarine in the summer of 1974 using the specially constructed Glomar Explorer deep-water salvage ship. Part of the submarine is raised on 4 July1974. The submarine was carrying three nuclear-armed ballistic missiles and unnamed official sources are quoted as saying the evidence also suggests that nuclear-tipped torpe does were on board.

13 Aprile 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Independence (CVA-62) collides with the USS Wrangell (AE-12) off South Carolina during underway replenishment, damaging both ships slightly.

15 Aprile 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Scorpion (SSN-589) collides with a barge during a storm in Naples harbor, Italy. The submarine was along side the barge which was used as a buffer between the submarine and another U.S. warship. The barge and the Scorpion's stern came together and then the barge was swamped and went down. The Scorpion returned to Naples on 20 April and divers descending to untangle a fishingline from its propeller made a partial inspection of its and reported no damage.

3 Maggio/Giugno 1968 - La Plata, Argentina: fonte compromessa A construction worker at a chemical plant discovered a 13-curie cesium-137 industrial radiography source and put it in his pants pocket for 17 hours (right pocket for 7 hours, left pocket for 10 hours), incurring a dose of 50 to 1,700 rads. This caused localized radiation injury; he was unable to work after 2 days, with radiation injury eventually involving permanent sterility and amputation of both legs. Another 17 coworkers were exposed to estimated doses of 40 rad.

9 Maggio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) is a drift off North Carolina due to a burned out bearing in the propulsion system.

24 Maggio 1968 - Luogo sconosciuto. Loss of cooling, radioactive contamination, nuclear fuel damaged 
During sea trials the Soviet nuclear submarine K-27 (Project 645) suffered severe problems with its reactor cooling systems. After spending some time at reduced power, reactor output inexplicably dropped and sensors detected an increase of gamma radiation in the reactor compartment to 150 rad/h. The safety buffer tank released radioactive gases further contaminating the submarine. The crew shut the reactor down and subsequent investigation found that approximately 20% of the fuel assemblies were damaged. The entire submarine was scuttled in the Kara Sea in 1981.

27 Maggio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Scorpion (SSN-589) sinks about 400 miles south west of the Azores, killing all 99 men on board. The U.S. Departmentof Defense reveals in 1981 that in the Spring of 1968 a nuclear weapons accident occurred in the Atlantic, the details of which remain classified. Despite the Pentagon's equivocation, this is taken to refer to the Scorpion and, nevertheless, itis generally known that two nuclear-armed ASTOR torpedoes were on board when the submarine sank. 27 Maggio 1968 - Oceano Atlantico. Un sottomarino statunitense Scorpion con a bordo due siluri a testata nucleare affonda nell'Atlantico, fra i 6 e gli 8 km. a sud ovest delle Azzorre ad una profondità di 3.450 m. Periscono 99 persone.

3 Giugno 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Shells from the Royal Navy frigate HMS Arethusa fall into farmland.

12 Giugno 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) and the USS Truckee (AO-147) are badly damaged in a collision during underway replenishment off the U.S. east coast.

13 Giugno 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Waldron (DD-699) and the USS Kiowa (ATF-72) collide during operations off the U.S. east coast.

15 Giugno 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Cossatot (AO-77), carrying 130,000 barrels of jet fuel, is badly damaged in a collision with the merchant ship Copper State in fog off Santa Cruz, California. The tanker loses 20 feet of its bow.

16 Giugno 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: U.S. Air Force F-4 jets sink a U.S. patrol boat and attack the USS Boston (CAG-1) and the Australian destroyer Hobart near the demilitarized zone off Vietnam, mistaking the ships for low-flying enemy helicopters.

Luglio 1968 - Mediterraneo. La nave cabotiera Scheersberg-A lascia il porto di Anversa per Genova con due tonnellate di uranio a bordo. La nave non arriverà mai in Italia come previsto, ma a Iskenderun, in Turchia, senza il suo carico. Anni più tardi, il proprietario delle nave è ritrovato in una prigione norvegese, dove è stato identificato essere un agente segreto israeliano.

2 Luglio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Norfolk Ledger-Star reports that several months ago a U.S. nuclear-powered attack submarine collided with a Soviet submarine, causing severe damage to the U.S. vessel which spent two months in Rota, Spain, for repair. The Navy declined to comment on the story by the paper's military correspondent who quoted a usually reliable source. The reporter noted that it is known that during recent months Soviet attack submarines have lain off overseas U.S. Polaris submarine ports, and that U.S. submarines have been given "wiping off" missions to prevent the Soviet submarines from following the Polaris boats. These missions apparently can get quite rough, amounting to what one officer says is "underwater chicken," with U.S. and Soviet submarines set on collision courses until the "chicken" turns away. "Presumably this is what happened" to the U.S. and Soviet submarines.

3 Luglio 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy survey vessel HMS Fox suffers a gas accident, killing one

Agosto 1968 - Brenìllis (Spagna). La centrale si blocca completamente. La riparazione è durata 3 anni.

1 Agosto 1968 - Wisconsin, USA. Incidente radioterapico. A patient was killed by a dose of 400-500 rads to the bone marrow from gold-198 during a liver scan. (Two sources give the location as Wisconsin; one gives Argonne Cancer Hospital near Chicago, Illinois.)

1 Agosto 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Caliente (AO-53) runs aground on a mud bank while entering Auckland Harbor, New Zealand. The oiler is pulled clear with no hull damage.

9 Agosto 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Von Steuben (SSBN-632) collides with the towed commercial tanker Sealady about 40 miles off the southern Spanish coast. The Von Steuben was submerged when struck or was struck by a submerged tow cable connecting a tug and the Sealady. The submarine surfaces immediately and then collides with the towed ship. The submarine sustains minor external damage to the super structure and main deck.

15 Agosto 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two small fires occur aboard the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Valiant while it is in dock at Chatham, U.K. Damage to the ship is slight and there are no casualties.

27 Agosto 1968 - Severodvinsk, Russia (then USSR) - Reactor power excursion, contamination 
While in the naval yards at Severodvinsk for repairs Soviet Yankee-class nuclear submarine K-140 suffered an uncontrolled increase of the reactor's power output. One of the reactors activated automatically when workers raised control rods to a higher position and power increased to 18 times normal, while pressure and temperature levels in the reactor increased to four times normal. The accident also increased radiation levels aboard the vessel. The problem was traced to the incorrect installation of control rod electrical cables.

31 Agosto 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An East German naval vessel collides with a Swedish ferry and sinks off Denmark. Six East German sailors are reported missing.

8 Settembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Douglas H. Fox (DD-779) suffers a fire en route to Charleston, South Carolina, killing two and injuring six.

13 Settembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A shell goes through the rigging of a trawler in Lyme Bay off Dorset, U.K., during Royal Navy gunnery practice.

6 Ottobre 1968 - Un sottomarino sovietico fa naufragio nelle acque dell'Artico al largo della Penisola di Cola. Pochi mesi prima, un altro era affondato nel Pacifico

19 Ottobre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Warspiteis damaged by ice during exercises in the North Atlantic, suffering slight damage to its conning tower and superstructure. The Royal Navy says there was not risk of "radioactive leakage. " The submarine returns to Faslane, Scotland, for repairs.

12 Novembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Alliance suffers a fire.

26 Novembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Hancock (CVA-19) and the USS Camden (AOE-2) collide during underway replenishment off South Vietnam. There are no injuries but the Camden is slightly damaged

10 Dicembre 1968 - Mayak Enterprise, Russia: criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio Solutions of plutonium were being transferred from a large tank into a stainless steel vessel using a glass bottle. While a worker was pouring a second load from the glass bottle into the vessel, a criticality excursion occurred, producing a flash of light and a pulse of heat. The worker dropped the bottle, which shattered and spilled its remaining contents on the floor, and left the room. A smaller excursion occurred while the room was empty. Two supervisors approached the room, but were halted by high radiation readings; the radiation control supervisor prohibited further approach but was misled into leaving, after which the shift supervisor entered the room and attempted to move or drain the vessel. The largest criticality excursion occurred then, exposing the supervisor to 2,450 rem and covering him with plutonium solution. The supervisor died one month later. The worker received a dose of 700 rem, leading to acute radiation sickness and amputation of both legs and one hand; he was still alive in 1999.

30 Dicembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An inquiry into an explosion aboard the Royal Navy destroyer HMSA ntrim is held.

31 Dicembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, in 1968, a Soviet nuclear submarine sinks off Severomorsk on the Kola Penisula, killing all 90 on board. The submarine was over due from patrol, and after waiting one or two days authorities initiated a search. Divers found the submarine on the bottom of the estuary to the Kolskiy Zaliv. When the submarine was recovered it was determined that all food had been consumed and it was estimated the submarine had been at the location for 30 days.

31 Dicembre 1968 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Late 1960s -- Reportedly a U.S. government official is briefed about a collision between a U.S. submarine engaged in a Holystone intelligence gathering mission and a North Vietnamese minesweeper in the Gulf of Tonkin. The minesweepersinks within minutes (see 5/25/75 entry).

1969 - Garigliano (Italia). Sette arresti alla centrale per guasti.

1969 - Stati Uniti. Quattro chilogrammi di 235U (che avrebbero dovuto viaggiare in convogli blindatissimi) vengono abbandonati "per caso" all'aeroporto di Boston. Rintracciati, dopo 6 mesi di frenetiche indagini, sotto un carico di scarpe nel deposito oggetti non ritirati dell'aeroporto.

1969 - Germania. Per fessurazioni molteplici delle turbine il reattore Gundremmingen sul Danubio viene chiuso per 3 anni.

1969 - Usa. Incendio nel reattore di Rocky-Flats. Durante l'incendio si perde plutonio.

1 Gennaio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During the winter -- the French trawler Belle Poule catches the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Porpoise in its nets off the U.K. or France.

14 Gennaio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) suffers explosions and a fire during its two-and-a-half-day Operational Readiness Inspection 70 miles south west of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, killing 28 and injuring 343. The fire starts when a tractor used to start aircraftis backed under the wing of a F-4 Phantom aircraft loaded with Zuni rockets. The tractor has a small jet engine mounted on its rear, the hot exhaust of which is put directly on to a Zuni rocket's warhead. In about a minute the warhead cooks off, spraying shrapnel over the flight deck, puncturing tanks and starting fires. The fires cause other Zuni rockets and 500-lb. bombs loaded on planes and piled on deck to cook off, exploding planes, blowing holes in the solid steel deck, and spilling aviation fuel from punctured fuel storage tanks. The captain of the ship recalls his concern over containing the fire to the aft part of the flight deck, since so little fire fighting equipment was on the flight deck, commenting "If the fire had spread to the hangar deck, we could have very easily lost the ship." Despite the lack of equipment the fire is successfully contained and after three hours burns itself out, where upon the ship proceeds back to Pearl Harbor. Damage includes 15 aircraft destroyed and 17 damaged. 14 Gennaio 1969 - Una bomba cade accidentalmente sul ponte della porta-aerei nucleare USS Enterprise, alias "Big E2, uccidendo 25 marinai e ferendo 85 membri d'equipaggio.

21 Gennaio 1969 - Lucens (Vantone di Vaud, Svizzera). Dopo sole 7 ore di funzionamento si ha surriscaldamento con rottura di guaine ed infiltrazione di acqua contaminata nel sotterraneo. La grotta contenente la centrale viene, in seguito, definitivamente murata .

22 Gennaio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Blake suffers a fire.

Febbraio 1969 - Borgo Sabotino (Latina - Italia). Arresto della centrale di Borgo Sabotino per mancanza di alimentazione alla strumentazione

19 Febbraio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Chopper (SS-342) plunges to the sea bottom after suffering a control casualty off Cuba on a routine training mission, injuring two and causing minor damage to the submarine.

Marzo 1969 - Borgo Sabotino (Latina - Italia). Guasto alla centrale.

10 Maggio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Swedish diesel submarine Sjoebpjoernen hits the bottom after diving too fast and suffers slight damage.

11 Maggio 1969 - Denver, Colorado, USA - Plutonium fire, contamination An accident in which 5 kilograms of plutonium burnt inside a glove box at Rocky Flats. Cleanup took two years and was the costliest industrial accident ever to occur in the United States at that time.

15 Maggio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Guitarro (SSN-665) undergoing final fitting-out at the San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California, sinks in 35 feet of water next to the pier. No fissionable materialis on board. The report of the U.S. Congress House Armed Services Subcommittee convened to investigate the accident charges culpable negligence on the part of shipyard workers responsible for the submarine: two civilian work crews pumped water into fore and aft sections of the boat; neither crew knowing what the other was doing.

25 Maggio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS King (DLG-10) suffers a fire in the fire room while operating off North Vietnam, killing four. The ship proceeds to the Philippines for repairs.

26 Maggio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Japanese fishing vessel Tayo Maru sinks after colliding with a Soviet patrol boat which was chasing it off the Kurile Islands, eight are rescued.

27 Maggio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Blake suffers another fire.

1 Giugno 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lowry (DD-770) suffers a gun explosion during a training mission off Puerto Rico, killing one and injuring eight.

1 Giugno 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In June a Japanese freighter passing off De-Kastri in the Tartar Strait is severly hit and damaged by dozens of splinters from a Soviet missile, which the Japanese government later identifies as a Soviet SS-N-3 Shaddock cruise missile.

2 Giugno 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Frank E. Evans (DD-754) collides with the Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne in the South China Sea approximately 650 miles southwest of Manila, cutting the destroyer in two. The bow section of the Evans sinks in about two minutes, killing 74, while the aft section of the Evans is quickly secured alongside the Melbourne. The collision occurred during the SEATO exercise "Sea Spirit."

12 Giugno 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers a fire in a Devonport dockyard, U.K., while undergoing an extensive overhaul.

13 Giugno 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Rorqual bumps into the USS Endurance (MSO-435) while docking at River Point pier in Subic Bay, Philippines.

8 Luglio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Cambria (APA-36) and USS Shadwell (LSD-15) collide off Malta during a night exercise.

15 Luglio 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Forrestal (CVA-59) suffers a small, localized fire while the ship is in the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia.

9 Agosto 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Japanese fishing boat collides with a Soviet patrol boat off Hokkaido, killing 11. Japan rejects Soviet claims the fishing boat violated Soviet territorial waters.

22 Agosto 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) collides with a tug and Navy barge in San Francisco Bay, California, injuring one barge crewman.

4 Settembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dewey (DLG-14) suffers an explosion and fire in the boiler room while preparing to sail from Toulon, France; killing three.

5 Settembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French trawler Pointe de Barfleur catches the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Onyx in its nets about 20 miles north-northeast of Cherbourg in the English Channel. The trawler faced some resistance when it hauled up itsnets. A flare was seen shooting up and then the submarine broke the surface. After some explanation the two boats went their way.

8 Settembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lexington (CVS-16) suffers a fire in a boiler room as the ship is in drydock in Boston, Massachusetts, injuring two.

8 Settembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Intrepid (CVS-11) runs aground off Jamestown, RhodeIsland, but is freed after two hours.

23 Settembre 1969 - Cina. Esplosione di una bomba termonucleare sotterranea in un poligono nella parte occidentale del paese. Il 28 settembre, un terremoto colpì lo stato di Vittoria, nell'Australia sud-orientale.

2 Ottobre 1969 - Isola Amchitka, Nord Pacifico, Alaska (USA). Test nucleare ad una profondità di 1.220 metri allo scopo di calibrazione strumenti sismici militari

13 Ottobre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Renown collides with the Irish motor vessel Moyle as it is surfacing during the night in the Mull of Kintyre off the westcoast of Scotland. The U.K. Navy Department says damage was slight and at no time was there a risk of a nuclear explosion. There are no casualties. Apparently the Renown was carrying out work-up trials preparatory to going on its first operational cruise in a few weeks, but was not carrying
any missiles.

17 Ottobre 1969 - San Laurent des Eaux, Loir-et-Cher, Francia. Un errore nelle procedure adottate per la gestione del combustibile provoca una fusione parziale a un reattore nucleare raffreddato a gas. Parecchi chilogrammi di uranio vanno persi durante un incidente a Saint Laurent des Eaux. Le riparazioni durano quasi un anno per un costo equivalente a 3 miliono di euro.

30 Ottobre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Glamorgan fires a missile which lands near a farm, causing damage.

31 Ottobre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : Fall 1969 (reportedly 18 months prior to 31 March 1971) a U.S. submarine engaged in Holystone intelligence gathering operations is beached for about two hours off the Soviet Union's coast, creating concern in the U.S. National Security Council because of the possibility of an international incidentif the submarine is discovered (see 3/31/71 and 5/25/75 entries).

10 Novembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : An unarmed torpedo fired from a Royal Navy submarine on exercise narrowly misses the Clyde ferry Countess of Breadalbane inthe Loch Long, Scotland. The U.K. Ministry of Defense says the torpedo's mechanism went wrong after being fired correctlyon course.

14 Novembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: The New York Times (7/6/75) reports the USS Gato (SSN-615) collides with a Soviet submarine the night of the 14 or 15 of November 15 to 25 miles from the entrance of the White Sea in the Barents Sea. A crewmember is quoted as saying the Gato was struck in the heavy plating that serves as a protective shield around the nuclear reactor, but the ship sustained no serious damage. However the ship's weapons officer immediately ran down two decks and prepared for orders to arma nuclear-armed SUBROC antisubmarine warfare missile and three nuclear-armed torpedoes. The accident reportedly occurred during a Holystone operation (see 5/25/75). According to former Gato crewmembers their commanding officer was ordered to prepare false reports showing the submarine had suffered a breakdownand halted its patrol two days prior to the collision. The Gato's commanding officer refused to comment when he was contacted due to security reasons.

14 Novembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Otter strikes a 20-footwooden ferry in the Manchester Ship Canal, U.K. The two passengers in the ferry jump into the water when they see the outline of the submarine bearing down on them. The submarine strikes the ferry a light blow, slightly damaging the ferry. The men swim safely to shore. The Otter was one of four submarines on a four-day goodwill visit to Manchester.

12 Dicembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Parsons (DD-949) collides with the Filipino fishingboat Orient off southern California. The Orient sinks but its crew is rescued.

27 Dicembre 1969 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The ammunition aboard the merchant ship Badger State comes loose and explodes when a big wave throws the ship on its side 1,500 miles north east of Hawaii as it is en route to Vietnam with a cargo of ordinance; 26 are dead or missing. The ship is rocked by explosions and fire for a week, leading the Navy to abandon salvage plans. The ship subsequently is sunk with gun fire.

1970 - Belgio. Altro incidente nel cuore del reattore di Chooz.

1970 - Chicago (Usa). L'impianto Edison perde 200.000 litri di acqua contaminata.

1970 - Usa. Il reattore Dresden 2, da 600 Mw, sfugge completamente al controllo per 2 ore per un guasto ad una apparecchiatura di controllo.

10 Gennaio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Foxtrot class diesel-powered submarine loses 20 feet of its bow section in a collision somewhere in the Mediterranean in January. Reports variously attribute the accident to a collision with another Soviet naval vessel or with the Italian liner Angelina Laura near the Bay of Naples. The damaged submarine was anchored off Morocco in early
February and departed into the Atlantic with an escort on 7 February.

10 Gennaio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Shangri-La (CVA-38) suffers a fire during training off Jacksonville, Florida, when an A-4 Skyhawk aircraft parked on the flight deck ignites, killing one.

10 Gennaio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Dreadnought encounters serious problems at the Rosyth, Scotland, dockyard during the first nuclear reactor refueling at a British yard, delaying the completion of the refit for at least ten months.

17 Gennaio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Volador (SS-490) and the Japanese freighter Miyahime Maru are lightly damaged in a collision at the mouth of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

21 Gennaio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Yancey (AKA-93) is driven through a section of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel by strong winds, which tore it fromits anchorage near Hampton Roads, Virginia. No injuries are reported on the ship or on the roadway, but the roadway is closed to traffic.

29 Gennaio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636) is grounded for seven hours in thick fog in Charleston harbor, South Carolina. The Navycloses the harbor while the submarine is refloated. Officials will not say whether any Polaris missiles are on board, but a Navy spokesman says there appears to be no danger of nuclear leakage or reactor damage. The next day the Navy says the ship suffered no damage.

10 Febbraio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Semmes (DDG-18) is heavily damaged and the USS Samuel B. Roberts (DD-823), USS Charles F. Adams (DDG-2), andUSS Yellowstone (AD-27) are slightly damaged when a Greek freighter sides wipes the four ships in Naples harbor, Italy.

10 Febbraio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Bullpup missile aboard the USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) cracks and leaks toxic gases and liquids when its pneumatic hoist fails and drops it on the deck of the weapons magazine while the ship is berthed at Naval Station North Island in San Diego, California. A Navy spokesman says the missile is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead but was not believed to be armedat the time. Two hundred crewmembers are evacuated from the surrounding areas and the rest of the 3500-personcrew stands by to take the ship to sea if necessary as a precaution. The broken rocket motor is safely lifted out of the ship and transferred to the dock.

10 Febbraio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Coincidently, minutes before the Bullpup missile drops in a starboard magazine, an electrical fire breaks out in a port side magazine aboard the USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) while the ship is docked at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego,California.

11 Febbraio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Auriga suffers a battery explosion while submerged in the Gibraltar area during NATO exercises. Ten people are injured, but the vessel surfaces safely and returns to port.

13 Febbraio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Point Defiance (LSD-31) and USS Ponchatoula (AO-148) are slightly damaged in a collision during refueling operations north of Hawaii, injuring three.

22 Febbraio 1970 -Boetingen, West Germany. A nuclear warhead from a Pershing ballistic missile fell to the pavement during maintenance procedures. The launch pad was evacuated and the area sealed off. The warhead, however, did not detonate. The incident occurred when a crewman, working alone in violation of regulations that require at least two persons to be present around nuclear weapons, accidentally removed an explosive bolt and its detonating cable, causing the warhead to fall. The fall broke off approximately a one-half inch piece of the missile's nosecone and also put a two inch gouge in the nosecone and badly scratched the warhead's ablative material. The incident was originally reported as a "Broken Arrow," but was later downgraded to a "Bent Spear" incident

4 Marzo 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French diesel submarine Eurydice explodes and sinks during dive 35 miles east of Toulon, killing all 57 crewmen on board.

19 Marzo 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Orleck (DD-886) collides with the USS Neches (AO-47) during underway replenishment off the coast of Vietnam. The Neches loses its starboard side replenishment capability.

20 Marzo 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS McKean (DD-784) and the USS Cacapon (AO-52) sustain minor damage in a collision during underway replenishment off Okinawa.

12 Aprile 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Golfo di Biscaglia, Atlantic: A Soviet November class nuclear-powered submarine sinks in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 300 miles north west of Spain. On 11 April the submarine is sighted dead in the water with personnel on deck trying to rig a tow line to two accompanying Soviet ships. By the morning of 12 April U.S. Navy P-3 patrol planes find only two oil slicks on the surface where the submarine had been, and the submarine is considered lost at sea. The accidentis believed to be related to a problem in the nuclear propulsion system. After the sinking Soviet survey vessels reportedly guard the area almost continuously for six months. Thereafter routine patrols are conducted until 1979, after which only occasional visits are made. 12 Aprile 1970 - Oceano Atlantico. Il sottomarino sovietico K-8, classe Novembre, affonda nell'Atlantico con a bordo due reattori e due siluri a testata nucleare. Muoiono 52 persone.

20 Aprile 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Plymouth collides with the Frenchfrigate Enseigne de Vaiseau Henry.

19 Maggio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : An inquiry is held into a fire aboard the Royal Navy minelayer HMS Manxman.

28 Maggio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Daniel Boone (SSBN-629) proceeding on its initial sea trials collides with the Philippine merchant ship President Quezon off Cape Henry, Virginia. The submarine incurs minor damage, but the President Quezon receives extensive damage to her bow.

28-30 Maggio 1970 - USA. Esecuzione di test nucleari. Il 31 maggio la città di Chimbote, in Perù, viene devastata da un terremoto che uccide 60.000 persone

31 Maggio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The West German destroyer Bayern suffers a gas explosion in an empty munitions store room, ripping a hole in the side of the ship, killing one and injuring two.

1 Giugno 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The Royal Navy oiler HMS Ennerdale sinks after running aground in the Seychelles.

13 Giugno 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Little Rock (CLG-4) is in a minor collision with the Greek destroyer Lonzhi in the Gulf of Laconia off Greece during the NATO exercise "Dawn Patrol 70."

18 Giugno 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Eugene A. Greene (DD-711) and the USS Waccamaw (AO-109) are in a minor collision in the eastern Mediterranean during refueling operations.

23 Giugno 1970 Australia. Incidente da irradiazione Faulty assembly of an x-ray analysis unit resulted in localized overexposures to two individuals. The unit in question modified around early 1969 to use different diffraction cameras. When reassembled, one shuttter mechanism was reassembled incorrectly such that the shutter did not engage to cover the x-ray port as required. On 23 and 24 June 1970 a research worker and an instrument maker were both exposed to the beam several times during efforts to adjust a camera. On the evening of 24 June the instrument maker noticed skin erythema on his abdomen. The two individuals were again exposed during work on the unit on 25 June, when they identified the malfunctioning shutter and realized they had been exposed. Dose to the instrument maker was estimated at 1500-2000 rem to the skin of the abdomen and 2000 rem to the hands, with a cumulative 90 min. exposure to the beam. Dose to the research worker from a cumulative 30 min. exposure was 1500 rem to the hands, producing skin injury, plus possible injury to the face as well. A third individual was briefly exposed but not injured.

8 Luglio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : An inquiry is held into the fire aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle.

17 Luglio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A sailor is found guilty of causing a power failure aboard the Royal Navy frigate HMS Ajax .

25 Luglio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fitter at the Chatham Naval Dockyard, U.K., working on the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS
Valiant receives a radiation dosage when he accidentally inhales radioactive material. According to the Ministry of Defense,the fitter "feels no ill effects and seems to be well," but is banned for a year from further work involving radioactivity.

30 Luglio 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Suspected sabotage to the main gearbox of the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror in the final stages of completion at the Cammel Laird shipyard Birkenhead, U.K., is under investigation. The shipyard says the damaged gearbox does not affect nuclear safety as it is separated from the reactor compartment.

4 Agosto 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Rogers (DD-876) collides with a Singapore-bound commercial tug in the South China Sea. There are no injuries.

19 Agosto 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet vessel reportedly equipped with electronic surveillance gear capsizes in the North Sea, near where NATO ships are maneuvering as part of exercise "Minflotex 70." Before the NATO ships could come to its aid, a Soviet tug took in her in tow. The ship sinks in heavy seas on 25 August.

20 Agosto 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French diesel submarine Galatee and the South African diesel submarine Maria von Riebeeck collide on the surface off Toulon, France, killing four.

11 Settembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Dreadnought suffers an air pipe fault, delaying its sea trials.

18 Settembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy coastal minesweeper HMS Wolverton collides with a yacht on which a family was spending its holiday, sinking the yacht at its moorings in Great Yarmouth harbor, U.K. The family leaves the yacht safely.

1 Ottobre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers faults to its flight-deck machinery and has to return to Devonport, U.K., for unscheduled repairs.

14 Ottobre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Eagle is sent into drydock after a collision.

4 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A boiler room explosion occurs aboard the USS Goldsborough (DDG-20) six hours out of Taiwan, killing two and injuring four.

9 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Kotlin class destroyer and the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal collide in the eastern Mediterranean. The Ark Royal is only slightly damaged, while the Soviet ship is badly scraped along her port side.

10 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare)A fire broke out in the stern of the U.S. Navy submarine tender USS Canopus which was carrying several nuclear-armed missiles. The tender was at the Holy Loch submarine base in Scotland moored alongside two American nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. It took four hours to bring the fire under control.

14 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Seawolf (SSN-575) suffers a breakdown in the engine room main drain south of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, en route to the Pacific. It surfaces dead in the water and asks for assistance.The USS Blandy (DD-943) gets underway to rendezvous and escort or tow the submarine. The next day the submarine is able to correct the problem itself and gets underway on its own power for Guantanamo.

16 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Fife catches fire during "LimeJug 70" exercises.

21 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Ulster is damaged by hitting a Swansea, U.K., quay.

28 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sylvania (AFS-2) and the USS Concord (AFS-5) are slightly damaged in a collision in Rota, Spain, when the Sylvania attempts under pilot to moor alongside the Concord.

29 Novembre 1970 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire breaks out in a baggage storeroom in the stern of the submarine tender USS Canopus (AS-34) while it is in the Holy Lochsubmarine base, Scotland. The Daily Telegraph reports that it was carrying nuclear-armed missiles and that two U.S.nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, the Francis Scott Key (SSBN-657) and James K. Polk (SSBN-645), were moored alongside. The Francis Scott Key cast off, but the Polk remained alongside. U.S. naval authorties in Holy Loch and London dismiss any suggestion that a nuclear explosion aboard the Canopus could have occurred or that "even a remote danger" from missiles or other materials existed. "We have drills and precautions which rule out any danger whatsoever," the London spokesman says. There are precautions against every eventualityin Holy Loch." The fire was brought under control after four hours. Three men were killed and the cause of the fire was unknown.U.S. Navy documents record that "damage was extensive in the small area in which the fire was contained," but "repairs were effected on site and Canopus was never 'off the line'".

18 Dicembre 1970 - Nevada Test Site, Area 8 (USA): test nucleare. Profondità: -273 m. Il test, denominato Baneberry, libera 250 PBq di radioattività attraverso una fessura nelle rocce. In Area 8 on Yucca Flat, the 10 kiloton "Baneberry" weapons test of Operation Emery detonated as planned at the bottom of a sealed vertical shaft 900 feet below the earth's surface but the device's energy cracked the soil in unexpected ways, causing a fissure near ground zero and the failure of the shaft stemming and cap.[29] A plume of hot gases and radioactive dust was released three and a half minutes after ignition,[30] and continuing for many hours, raining fallout on workers within NTS. Six percent of the explosion's radioactive products were vented. The plume released 6.7 MCi of radioactive material, including 80 kCi of Iodine-131 and a high ratio of noble gases.[31] After dropping a portion of its load in the area, the hot cloud's lighter particles were carried to three altitudes and conveyed by winter storms and the jet stream to be deposited heavily as radionuclide-laden snow in Lassen and Sierra counties in northeast California, and to lesser degrees in northern Nevada, southern Idaho and some eastern sections of Oregon and Washington states.[32] The three diverging jet stream layers conducted radionuclides across the US to Canada, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.


LISTA INCIDENTI NUCLEARI E CORRELATI (1971-1990) torna all'indice clicca qua>>


1971 - Chiba, Giappone: fonte compromessa A 5.26-curie iridium-192 source for industrial radiography was lost. Six construction workers received doses of 15 to 130 rem, and three developed radiation sickness.

1971 - Den Haag (Olanda). Rottura di un tubo per il convogliamento di acqua radioattiva.

1971 - Kansas, USA. Si scopre che la miniera di sale scelta per lo stoccaggio delle scorie radioattive, al riparo dell'acqua, è piena di buchi e l'Aec (Ente americano per l'energia nucleare) è costretto a improvvisare dei piani di stoccaggio in superficie.

1971 - Francia. Fournier rivela in «Charlie Hebdo» n. 14 che un tecnico del centro nucleare di Saclay ha tentato, due anni prima, di suicidarsi dando fuoco al laboratorio in cui lavorava.

1 Gennaio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Sphinx (ARL-24) loses power about 120 nautical miles north west of Okinawa.

15 Gennaio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: U.S. Navy barge loaded with diesel fuel sinks off Puerto Rico and spreads a mile-long oil slick.

19 Gennaio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Roark (DE-1053) is badly damaged by an engine room fire in the western Pacific. The ship is taken in tow by the USS Towers (DDG-9) toward Midway Island from whence it will betowed to Pearl Harbor.

20 Gennaio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wasp (CVS-18) and USS Chukawan (AO-100) collide while refueling south west of Bermuda.

24 Gennaio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Hamner (DD-718) and USS Camden (AOE-2) collide during underway replenishment in the Gulf of Tonkin.

2 Febbraio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine Redoutable collides with a fishing trawler off Brest, France. The trawler is holed, but the crew is safely picked up by a French navy escort vessel.

3 Febbraio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Opportune collides with an unidentified merchant vessel in the English Channel while running submerged, receiving slight superstructure damage.

4 Febbraio 1971 - USA: incidente da irradiazione A techician at a seed irradiation facility walked within 0.6 meters of a 7,700-curie cobalt-60 source, unaware that the source was unshielded. When the technician left the irradiation room, it was realized that the source was unshielded. His whole body dose was estimated at 50-400 rad (a dosimeter worn at the belt indicated 260 rad) with exposure to his hand of 600-1200 rad.

12 Febbraio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Great Sitkin (AE-17) arrives under tow at Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, having lost power off the Virgin Islands when four spring bearings wiped. Sabotage is suspected.

15 Febbraio 1971 - Kurtchatov, Russia: criticità di incidente con uranio An experimental configuration was being used to test the effectiveness of reflector materials in a power reactor core. The experimental core used uranium oxide (20% U-235) fuel rods immersed in water to induce critcality. The test on 15 February used beryllium as a reflector, which was erroneously expected to behave similarly to an iron reflector previously used. Before all experimenters had arrived, a supervisor began adding water to the core tank without control rods actuated. The supervisor and another scientist saw a blue glow reflected from the ceiling at the same time neutron detection alarms sounded; they both left the room. The first excursion boiled some of the water into steam, expelling additional water from the tank; however, the water pump was still on and continued filling the tank, causing additional excursions before electricity supply to the pump was cut off about 6 minutes later. The two individuals in the room received localized doses to their feet of about 1500 rem; one was assessed a whole-body dose of 330 rem.

19 Febbraio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Water breaks into the French diesel submarine Flore when a valve of the snorkel device malfunctions as the submarine cruises submerged at a depth of 15 to 20 feet off Toulon. The submarine surfaces, but water had damaged its electrical circuits, and the engines could not be started. The submarine is slowly towed to Toulon through rough seas.

1 Marzo 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In March the USS Detroit (AOE-4) collides with a Navy oiler 70 miles off the South Carolina coast. Damage was slight.

26 Marzo 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Albion suffers a fault in a drive shaft bearing and returns to Portsmouth, U.K., for repairs.

31 Marzo 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The New York Times reports that a U.S. Navy Sturgeon class nuclear-powered attack submarine collides with a Soviet submarine 17 nautical miles off the coast of the Soviet Union while on a secret reconnaissance mission as part of the Holystone submarine intelligence gathering operations (see 5/25/75 entry).

3 Aprile 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror suffers flooding due to a failure of material while in a fitting-out basin in Cammel Laird shipyard, Birkenhead, U.K., over the weekend. Firemen and yardworkers spend about 17 hours pumping seven feet of water out of the submarine.

21 Aprile 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire of electrical origin and short duration occurs aboard the USS John F. Kennedy (CVA-67) in the Virginia Capes area.

1 Maggio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Sheffield suffers an explosionas it is fitting out, killing several workmen.

6 Maggio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bigelow (DD-942) suffers a possible momentary grounding while en route to an anchorage in Aarhus Bay, Denmark, causing minor damage.

6 Maggio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Hanson (DD-832) collides with the Soviet fleet tug Diomid in the Korean Straits, causing minor damage but no injuries. The Hanson conjectures the accident was caused by a deliberate attempt by the tug (with an icebreaker bow) to ram the Hanson. A sliding collision, however, was the only result.

8 Maggio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Nationalist Chinese fishing boat sinks off Kaohsiung, Taiwan, when it attempts to pass between the tug USS Molala (ATF-106) and its tow ARD-22, striking first the bridle and then the bowof the ARD.

26 Maggio 1971 - Kurtchatov, Russia: criticità di incidente con uranio in acqua Experiments were being conducted to determine the number of uranium fuel rods (90% U-235) required to produce a critical configuration. Rods were placed in various geometries within a Plexiglas tank which was filled with water, with additional rods added a few at a time. Insufficient calculations had been performed regarding such an apparatus. At the completion of one experiment, the water was being rapidly drained, causing the rods to slump into a supercritical configuration. The excursion ejected water and fuel rod fragments from the tank. One technician received about 6,000 rem and died 5 days later; a supervisor received 2,000 rem and died 15 days later. Two others in the room received doses of 700-800 rem and suffered acute radiation sickness; they survived with long term health effects.

7 Giugno 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French escort ship Surcouf and the Soviet tanker Busharov collide in the Mediterranean 60 miles south of Cartagena, Spain, at night, cutting the Surcouf in half and killing nine. The front half sinks, but the stern section is taken in tow by the French destroyer Tartu.

28 Giugno 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The casing of a valve ruptures filling the engine spaces with steam aboard the USS Trenton (LPD-14) while the ship is undergoing shakedown training in the Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, operating area, killing four and seriously injuring seven.

1 Luglio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Artemis sinks without warning while moored in 30 feet of water at Gosport, England.

10 Luglio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Constellation (CVA-64) suffers a one-hour machinery room fire while moored at San Diego, California.

16 Luglio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unidentified U.S. Navy ship spills 40,000 gallons of oil off New York, subsequently contaminating the water fronts of Coney Island and Staten Island, New York.

27 Luglio 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Harlan R. Dickson (DD-708) runs aground off Cape Cod Canal, Massachusetts, after a mechanical failure, but is freed the next day.

15 Agosto 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) suffers flooding in an engine room while anchored off Athens, Greece.

17 Agosto 1971- (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Regulus (AF-57) is severely damaged when, struck bytyphoon Rose, it is torn from its moorings and tossed aground on Kau Yi Chau Island near Hong Kong.

20 Agosto 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) suffers another engine room flood shortly after leaving Athens, Greece, where repair from a similar flood of 15 August just was completed.

8 Settembre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Odin suffers a fire.

26 Settembre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Holder (DD-819) runs aground momentarily in Vieques Passage off Puerto Rico. There is no damage.

30 Settembre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Alliance suffers a hydrogen build up and explosion in a battery compartment due to a faulty ventilation system while in Portsmouth, U.K., killing one and injuring 14.

11 Ottobre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Talbot (DEG-4) suffers an engineering casualty and is towed by the USS Skylark (ASR-20) to Newport, Rhode Island.

15 Ottobre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In mid-October the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royalsuffers a fire while in Portsmouth, U.K.

21 Ottobre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal suffers a second fire while in Portsmouth, U.K., taking six hours to control.

26 Ottobre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Japanese fishing boat Minato Maru collides with an unidentified submarine in the Sea of Japan about 300 miles northwestof Niigata, Japan.

30 Ottobre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Benjamin Stoddert (DDG-22) suffers a four-and-one-half hour fire in the motor generator set room while undergoing overhaul at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

31 Ottobre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Niagara Falls (AFS-3) is slightly damaged by a maindeck fire while moored at Hong Kong. The fire is later determined to be caused by arson.

6 Novembre 1971 - Isola Amchitka, Nord Pacifico, Alaska (USA). Test nucleare ad una profondità di 1.800 metri con una potenza di 5 megaton per il collaudo delle testate dello Spartan, missile a lunga gittata pronto a partire in ogni momento - per l'intercettazione degli ICBM della Repubblica Sovietica - dai silos dislocati sul territorio statunitense negli anni durante il periodo della guerra fredda.

1 Novembre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Hardhead (SS-365) suffers minor structural damage when it is struck by an Italian ferry in the Straits of Messina, off Italy

19 Novembre 1971 - Monticello, Minessota, USA. Nella centrale nucleare, un sebatoio d'acqua deborda, versando 190 metri cubi di acqua contaminata nel Missisipi. Delle materie radioattive entreranno nel sistema di canalizzazione delle acque di St. Paul.

12 Dicembre 1971 -New London, Connecticut, USA. Nel fiume Tamigi si disperdono 1.900 litri d'acqua contaminata derivante dall'acqua di raffreddamento radioattiva trasferita dal sottomarino americano USS Dace al sottomarino USS Fulton.

29 Dicembre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dace (SSN-607) inadvertently discharges 500 gallons of water used as coolant for its nuclear reactor into the Thames River at New London, Connecticut, during a routine water transfer between the submarine and the USS Fulton (AS-11).The Navy says measurements in the area showed "no increase in radioactivity of the environment" on the following day and claims the coolant contains a "very small amount of radioactivity." Navy sources at the Pentagon acknowledge there have been a "afew" leakages at the base during such transfers in the past, although none were disclosed, but also none were of sufficient size to endanger anybody. Reportedly the Navy disclosed this accident only when rumors of a nuclear incident started circulating in New London.

31 Dicembre 1971 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: On two occasions in 1971 defective U.S. nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine distress buoys accidently shot to the surface signalling the submarines had been sunk by enemy action and each set off "a massive U.S. alert," raising the "threat of accidental war." A spokesman for the Pentagon admitted there had been two involuntary releases in 1971, one in the Mediterranean and one in the North Atlantic. But in each case, he said, the submarine informed its home base immediately and "There was no alert of any kind." One release was due to a mechanical problem and one to a human error. The Navy said technical corrections had been made since 1971 to prevent a recurrence of the accidental launchings.

1972 - Francia. Due militanti del gruppo ecologico «Survivre et vivre» scoprono che più di 500 fusti di residui radioattivi su 18.000 conservati all'aperto al centro di ricerche nucleari di Saclay, hanno larghe fenditure che lasciano così sfuggire la radioattività.

1972 - Francia. Un operaio portoghese che non conosce i segnali di pericolo lavora parecchie ore in una sala irradiata del centro di Saclay e resta irradiato oltre i limiti di guardia.

1972 - Francia. Ancora al centro di Saclay sfuggono dieci metri cubi di liquidi radioattivi.

1972 - West Valley, New York, USA. Dopo 6 anni di funzionamento viene chiusa la fabbrica di ritrattamento dei combustibili nucleari. Restano dei serbatoi contenenti 2.300 metri cubi di scorie altamente radioattive. In seguito si scopriranno contaminati i laghi Erie e Ontario.

1972 - Usa. Due lavoratori nell'impianto di Surry muoiono per l'esplosione dei tubi difettosi di un sistema di sicurezza mentre li stanno ispezionando.

1972 - Bulgaria: esposizione radioattiva autoinflitta An individual received a self-inflicted fatal radiation dose from cesium-137 capsules used for radiotherapy, possibly by injecting them into soft tissue. The localized dose exceeded 20,000 rad.

16 Gennaio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Albert David (DE-1050) collides with a North Vietnamese junk in the Gulf of Tonkin and two people from the junk are lost.

24 Gennaio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) :Atlantic The USS Sea Horse (SSN-669) is grounded for two hours while outbound from Charleston, South Carolina.

1 Febbraio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In February the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Alliance's engine room begins to flood while the ship is submerged during atrial dive off Plymouth, U.K., in the English Channel. The submarine touches the seabed at 122 feet after diving too steeply due to incorrect trimming in response to the flooding. The Alliance leaves the bottom after bouncing off the seabed.

7 Febbraio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Wahoo (SS-565) sustains damage to its starboard shaft when it collides with Queens Pier in Hong Kong after being carried by a tidal current.

19 Febbraio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The hull of the USS Preserver (ARS-8) is cracked in three places when it strikes a rock while entering Portsmouth, New Hampshire, harbor during stormy weather.

23 Febbraio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Shreveport (LPD-12) and USS Nashville (LPD-13) are slightly damaged in a collision during exercises in the Caribbean.

24 Febbraio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy P-3 Orion patrol plane sights a Soviet Hotel II class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine on the surface 600 miles north east of Newfoundland. The submarine had an apparent nuclear propulsion problem which resulted in the loss ofall power. Several deaths are thought to have occurred. The next day the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Boutwell sights the disabled submarine in company with five Soviet ships. An offer of assistance by the Boutwell receives no reply. The Sovietships start back to the submarine's home base through heavy, stormy seas. On 18 March the submarine is still slowly moving across the north Atlantic now accompanied by nine Soviet ships and the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Gallatin. On 5 April, the West German Navy reports the submarine had reached its home waters in the White Sea.

25 Febbraio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Beacon (PG-99) suffers a large hole and an engine room flood after colliding with the Dutch fishing ship Syriname east of Cape Maisi, Cuba, and is towed to Guantanamo Bay.

Marzo 1972 - Alaska, USA. Un controllo di routine in una centrale nucleare rileva la presenza di radioattività nella rete di acqua del fabbricato (con i punti di acqua potabile) interconnesso con un sebatoio di 11 metri cubi di scorie radioattive.

15 Marzo 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Joseph Hewes (DE-1078) loses power about 600 miles east of Jacksonville, Florida, when a main engine line shaft bearing breaks in stormy seas.

16 Marzo 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Navy reports the rare sighting of a Soviet Yankee class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine on the surface northeast of Iceland. It was not clear whether the submarine was in difficulty.

11 Aprile 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Benjamin Franklin (SSBN-640) collides with and sinks a tugboat at the General Dynamics Electric Boat Division docksat Groton, Connecticut. The submarine, being overhauled at the shipyard, was not damaged.

16 Aprile 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Two antiradiation missiles inadvertently fired by a U.S. support aircraft explode near the USS Worden (DLG-18) while the ship operates off Vietnam, killing one, injuring nine, and putting the ship out of action. The ship proceeds to Subic
Bay, Philippines for ten days of repairs.

28 Giugno 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Oriskany (CVA-34) and USS Nitro (AE-23) are in a minor collision during underway replenishment 150 nautical miles east of Da Nang, South Vietnam.

6 Luglio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Guadalupe (AO-32) sustains damage to its bow, bridge, and fueling probe in a collision with the USS Alamo (LSD-33) 30 miles north of Da Nang, South Vietnam, during underway replenishment when the Alamo's rudder jams hard left and does not respond.

10 Luglio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The computer system of the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) is damaged by a fire determined to have been caused by arson while in Norfolk, Virgina.

19 Luglio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Damage to the reduction gears of the USS Ranger (CVA-61) while in San Diego, California, is determined to have been caused by sabotage.

20 Luglio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Oriskany (CVA-34) loses a propeller and a section of the propeller's tail shaft while operating in the Pacific, thuslimiting the carrier to three engines.

20 Luglio 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A sailor who is said to have started fires aboard the Royal Navyf rigate HMS Puma because the first lieutenant got on his nerves, is sentenced by a Portsmouth, U.K., court-martial.

16 Agosto 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Onyx suffers a fire started by chemicals while undergoing refit at a Portsmouth, U.K., dockyard, causing slight damage.

1 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Newport News (CA-148) suffers an accidental explosion in a gun turret while operating off Vietnam, killing 19, injuring ten (one mortally) and putting the ship out operation.

5 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: The USS Mizar (T-AGOR-11) and the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Edisto collide about 720 miles north of Iceland in the Greenland Sea, as the Edisto tows the disabled Mizar. Both are disabled and are in danger of being beset by ice.

6 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Tullibee (SSN-597) collides with the West German freighter Hagen as it is cruising just beneath the surface about 150 nautical miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, during stormy weather, causing slight damage to the submarine. The collision did not impair the operations of either ship.

11 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French diesel submarine La Sirene sinks at its moorings after emergency bulkheads fail to prevent an inrush of water through an open torpedo tube, no reported injuries.

22 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Silas Bent (T-AGS-26) is badly damaged by fire while conducting surveillance off the South Korean coast. There are no casualties and the ship returns to Pusan under its own power.

25 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Snook (SSN-592) is slightly damaged when it strikes bottom in Dabob Bay, Washington, while on a celebration run. The submarine surfaced without any problems.

29 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) suffers a machine room fire while in port at Singapore, killing three.

30 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Florikan (ASR-9) suffers a fire in a forward hold, killing one and injuring another.

31 Ottobre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : While the USS Mississinewa (AO-144) is getting underway, sabotage is discovered in the ship's boiler system which is shut down before damage is incurred.

3 Novembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A flash fire in the after fire room of the USS Henderson (DD-785) puts the Number 4 boiler out of commission. However, the ship continues operations off southern California.

12 Novembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Kretchmer (DER-329) while crossing the Atlantic is forced to divert to Ponta Delgado, Azores, after suffering a series of material casualties.

14 Novembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Russell is damaged in a gale.

15 Novembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Preserver (ARS-8) completes a month-long trans-Atlantic tow of the USS Brumby (DE-1044) from Greenock, Scotland, to Charleston, South Carolina, after the Brumby suffers damage to its steam generators.

Dicembre 1972 - Pauling, New York, USA. Un grave incendio e due esplosioni in una fabbrica di Plutonio, provocano la contaminazione del complesso industriale e del suolo, causandone la chiusura defintiva.

1 Dicembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, in December a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine from the Northern Fleet suffers a nuclear radiation accident while on patrol off the eastern coast of North America. The accident involved leakage from a nuclear-armed torpedo in the Mine-Torpedo Department in the forward section of the submarine. Reportedly, "Doors were immediately secured in accordance with regulations and some crew members were trapped within the space where the nuclear radiation leakage occurred."

2 Dicembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Proteus (AS-19) experiences a blast in a boiler room while in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, suffering only slight damage.

13 Dicembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CVA-61) suffers a fire in the main machinery room while the ship operates off Vietnam. The fire takes two hours to control.

31 Dicembre 1972 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, probably in December 1972 or January 1973 an undetermined accident during Soviet naval operations cripples a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine in the Atlantic. Reportedly, the submarine is towed "at a speed of two to three knots" for six weeks to Severomorsk on the Kola Peninsula, arriving in February 1973. Also, "The crew members trapped in the forward space initially consumed dry rations that were permanently stored in the compartment and later they received food through a small opening from the weather deck. Upon arrival at Severomorsk, crew members were permitted to debark the submarine. Several men died shortly after the accident, others later.... The majority of the submarine crewmembers suffered from some form of radiation sickness."

1973 - Hanford (Usa). La Aec (Ente americano per l'energia nucleare) ammette che nei 15 anni precedenti si sono verificati 15 incidenti in cui si sono liberati liquidi radioattivi per un totale di 1.600.000 litri .

1973 - Den Haag (Olanda). 35 addetti agli impianti sono intossicati (7 in modo molto grave). Nubi di gas radioattivo si diffondono per 15 minuti sulla campagna.

5 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Henry B. Wilson (DDG-7) while outside Saigon, South Vietnam, suffers an in-bore premature explosion in Mount 51 which destroys a foot of the barrel and injures two crewmen.

21 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Cascade (AD-16) experiences flooding and small fires in port at Sigonella, Italy. Sabotage is suspected.

22 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Batfish (SSN-681) suffers bottom damage after running hard aground at Charleston, South Carolina, while proceeding to sea. The submarine is pulled free by tugs and returns to the dock.

23 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Scylla collides with a Tamas River ferry between Plymouth and Torpoint in the river. The ferry'shull is split near the bows, leaving a three-foot-wide gash from handrail to waterline. The frigate continued down river for the sea.

23 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigates HMS Russell and HMS Hardy collide with minor damage in Portsmouth harbor, U.K. as they maneuver for a formation departure. Both continued to their exercise area.

23 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy fleet auxiliary Scarab collides with the Cleddau King ferry at Neyland, Pembrokshire, Wales. An engineer on the ferry, which crosses the Cleddau River, is hurt when the impact threw him against the engines.

27 Gennaio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Jason (AR-8) suffers minor damage when struck by the Japanese cargo ship Koro Maru while en route from Sasebo, Japan, to Keelung, Taiwan.

4 Febbraio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Tolovana (AO-64) is slightly damaged by a fire apparently of electrical origin while in port at Subic Bay, Philippines.

5 Febbraio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Basilone (DD-824) suffers a boiler room explosion during training 120 miles south east of New York City, killing seven.

7 Febbraio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An explosion of fuel leaking from a broken pipe sets off an engine room fire on the USS Agerholm (DD-826) while the ship is off San Diego, California, killing three.

10 Febbraio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Fairfax County (LST-1193) is holed by an uncharted reef during amphibious exercises off Carbonaras, Spain, but is able to continue participation.

23 Febbraio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) suffers minor damage from a brief fire in the hangar deck while the carrier is undergoing restricted availability in Mayport, Florida.

Marzo1973 - Chinon (Francia). Arresto definitivo della centrale nucleare di Chinon I, dopo soli 11 anni di funzionamento. Di fatto la centrale ha mosso le turbine per 43.000 ore, ossia per 5 anni.

11 Marzo 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Manitowoc (LST-1180) experiences a brief fire in a pump room while in port at Little Creek, Virginia. There are no injuries.

27 Marzo 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Greenling (SSN-614) goes below its safe diving level while training about 250 miles north west of Bermuda because a needle on a depth guage sticks. The true depth is disclosed on another gauge before the submarine reaches a depth that wouldhave crushed her hull. On 30 March the submarine arrives at its homeport of Groton, Connecticut. On 10 April the Greenlingdocks at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, New Hampshire, for a thorough check.

27 Marzo 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Hammerhead (SSN-663), operating east of the Virginia Capes area at about 300 feet, strikes a submerged object of unknown nature thought to be non-metallic, perhaps a whale. The impact was heavy enough to be heard and felt through out the ship. There was no discernable damage.

Aprile 1973 - Coulport, Gran Bretagna. A Scottish Electricity Board Land rover reversed into a RAF nuclear weapon load carrier transporting nuclear warheads for Polaris missiles. Minor damage was caused to the load carrier. The weapons were not damaged.

Aprile 1973 - Isole Hawaii (USA). Fuga radioattiva nel sottomarino statunitense Guardfish alle Hawaii. Cinque marinai dell'equipaggio vengono contaminati dalle radiazioni.

4 Aprile 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Beacon (PG-99) runs aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, during "Exotic Dancer VI" exercises and is refloated the next day.

5 Aprile 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: While sailing in the Virginia Capes area, the USS Independence (CVA-62) suffers a 45-minute fire in a catapult ventilation system which affects its operational readiness.

10 Aprile 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Guadalupe (AO-32) runs aground off Harbor Island in San Diego Bay, California, no reported injuries.

13 Aprile 1973 - Il modulo di servizio della navicella spaziale Apollo 13 distrutto da un'esplosione durante il volo verso la Luna precipita nell'Oceano Pacifico. Ha a bordo un generatore contenente plutonio.

21 Aprile 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Guardfish (SSN-612) experiences a primary coolant leak while running submerged about 370 miles south-sout hwest of Puget Sound. The submarine surfaces and is ventilated and decontaminated, and repairs the casualty unassisted. Four crewmen are transferred to the Puget Sound Naval Hospital for monitoring.

23 Aprile 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Force (MSO-445) catches fire and sinks about 820 miles west of Guam in the Philippine Sea. Seventy crewmen who abandon the Force are picked up the next day by the British merchant ship Spratnes.

21 Maggio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sturgeon (SSN-637) strikes the bottom of the ocean suffering minor damage while operating in deep water during a dive off the U.S. Virgin Islands. The Navy says there were no injuries to the crew and the submarine's nuclear power plant was not affected. The submarine put into the nearest U.S. port at Frederiksted, St. Croix, under its own power.

28 Maggio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Charles Berry (DE-1035) and a Japanese cargo ship suffer minor damage in a collision in Kobe harbor, Japan.

3 Giugno 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Hull (DD-945) suffers a minor fire in an air conditioning unit while in port at San Diego, California.

4 Giugno 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Higbee (DD-806) suffers damage to its sonar dome when it is grounded for five hours at Subic Bay, Philippines.

6 Giugno 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Skipjack (SSN-585) hits an uncharted sea mount during "Dawn Patrol" exercises in the Mediterranean Sea. The submarine suffers minor damage and proceeds on the surface to Soudha Bay, Crete, for hull inspection.

14 Luglio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Robert H. McCard (DD-822) damages its sonar dome when it runs aground on an uncharted sand bar while exiting Tampa Bay, Florida.

17 Luglio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Army Reserve transport ship Hickory Knoll collides with U.S. Coast Guard buoy tender Firebrush in Baltimore harbor, Maryland, shortly after being freed from a sand bar. Neither ship is seriously damaged. The Army says the Firebrush failed to concede the right of way.

28 Luglio 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Canadian diesel submarine Okanagan and the tanker Grey Rover collide off the Scottish coast, no reported injuries.

3 Agosto 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Victoria (AK-281) experiences an engine room fire while berthed at Eire Basin, Brooklyn, New York, delaying its sailing by two weeks in order to make repairs.

Settembre1973 - La Hague (Francia). Fuga di gas radioattivo: 35 lavoratori sono contaminati di cui 7 gravemente.

Settembre 1973 - Windscale (GB). Nell'officina di ritrattamento si ha un rigetto di radioattività: 40 lavoratori sono contaminati.

5 Settembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Defense Department reports that a damaged Soviet Echo II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine has been sighted in the Caribbean south of Cuba with an eight-foot gash in theport bow deck. This is apparently the result of a collision with another Soviet ship, perhaps a cruiser with visible scrapeson its hull, during maneuvers of the Soviet Caribbean task force. The Pentagon spokesman said the submarine did not appear tobe in danger of sinking.

9 Settembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Claud Jones (DE-1033) experiences an engine room fire while en route to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, causing substantial damage but no casualties.

22 Settembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CVA-60) experiences a fire on the third deck, between the flight deck and the hangar deck, which takes nine hours to extinguish while the ship is in drydock at Norfolk, Virginia.

6 Ottobre 1973 - Guerra dello Yom Kippur. Durante la crisi Nixon dichiara l'allerta nucleare per il mondo, che cessa con la fine della crisi.

7 Ottobre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Soviet Kanin class guided missile destroyer 252 accidently releases a torpedo after an explosion in a torpedo tube while shadowing the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes during NATO "Swift Move" exercises in the North Sea. Other torpedoes are jettisoned to clear the tubes near the fire.

Novembre 1973 - Hanford (Usa). Si ha la diciassettesima fuga di liquidi radioattivi. Gli accumuli di plutonio in una fossa vicino alla città sono così grandi da rendere possibile una reazione a catena.

1 Novembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. Navy 100-foot underwater demolition team's vessel rams a minisubmarine in San Diego harbor, California, as both vessels are returning to Coronado amphibious base from routine exercises with 40 other vessels, killing one.

Dicembre 1973 - Usa. Su 39 reattori, 13 sono fuori servizio. Brown's Ferry lavora al 10%, Peach Botton al 2%, Connec 2 al 20%.

11 Dicembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A fire, probably due to a fuel line failure, occurs in the mainengine room on board the USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) while the ship is 700 miles east of the Philippines, killing six.

12 Dicembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An explosion rips through the stack of the USS Detroit's (AOE-4) after engine room, causing much material damage while the ship is in Newport, Rhode Island, for repairs and upkeep.

29 Dicembre 1973 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An oil slick 11 miles in length results when a fuel tank of theUSS Pvt Joseph F. Merrell (T-AK-275) is opened in a collision with the Liberian freighter Pearl Venture off the Californian coast. The Pvt JosephF. Merrell is towed into San Luis Obispo Bay the next day while the oil slick dissipates at sea.

Prima del 1974 - Austria: Radioisotope indium-113 applied to a railroad car

1974 - In mare, Gran Bretagna. The diaphragm of a missile tube compressed on to a Polaris missile. There was no damage to missile or warheads.

1974 - Giappone. Il Giappone costringe gli USA a ritirare dai propri porti i sommergibili atomici perchè risultati radioattivi ed inquinanti. I dati forniti dalla U.S. Navy erano falsificati e i prelievi avvenivano in altre zone

1974 - Usa. Da un'inchiesta risulta che più di 3.700 persone che avevano accesso ad armi atomiche hanno dovuto essere licenziate. Motivi: demenza, decadimento intellettuale, alcolismo.

1974 - Shevcenko (URSS). Reazione tra il sodio (usato come liquido refrigerante) e l'acqua con generazione di idrogeno e soda caustica (che a sua volta corrode il circuito di trasporto del fluido). Il risultato è una grossa esplosione.

1974 - Usa. Una nube radioattiva di trizio si forma per una fuga di gas da un condotto della centrale di Savannah Mirex, in Carolina. La nube va lentamente alla deriva ad una altezza di 70 metri .

1974 - Francia. A 60 anni dall'avvio di una fabbrica di radio, nonostante il suo smantellamento, si libera ancora una radioattività significativa. L'acquirente del terreno di Gyf-sur-Yvette sul quale la fabbrica è situata scopre in vari punti fonti radioattive che superano 50 volte la dose massima consentita.

1974 - Belgio. L'acqua della condotta Visé, captata nel Pletron, contiene da 2 a 3 volte più radon 22 (gas radioattivo) del massimo ammesso per una popolazione adulta vicina ad una centrale.

8 Gennaio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Kittiwake (ASR-13) receives minor hull damage in a collision with the USS Finback (SSN-670) at the destroyer submarine piers at the Norfolk Naval Base, Virginia.

21 Gennaio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Navy says it is investigating possible sabotage in the cutting of electrical wires in the USS Spadefish (SSN-668), which is undergoing a one-year overhaul in the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia. Electrical wires on the submarine had been cut several times since the fall of 1973, prompting the Navy to investigate.

Febbraio 1974 - Al largo di Malta. Two Mk44 torpedoes which were being removed from a storage rack fell a few inches onto a WE177 weapon. There was some superficial scratching on the plastic protective strips on the edges of the weapon's rear tail fin. There was no damage to the weapon itself.

13 Febbraio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Gurke (DD-783) experiences an electrical fire while operating in the Okinawa area, which damages a switchboard and associated equipment and injures two.

14 Febbraio 1974 - Plattsburgh AFB, New York. The nose landing gear of a USAF FB-111 carrying two short range attack air-to-surface missiles and two nuclear bombs collapsed as the aircraft was commencing an engine run-up during an alert exercise. There was no damage to the weapons and they were unloaded without incident.

14 Febbraio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Schofield (DEG-3) suffers a propulsion casualty and is taken in tow by the USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25) near the entrance of the Red Sea in the Indian Ocean. Repairs are completed the next day.

24 Febbraio 1974 - La Maddalena, Italia. Sostituiti improvvisamente i marinai statunitensi imbarcati sulla nave-balia "Gilmore" (nave-appoggio-officina affiancata agli Hunter Killer, i sommergibili d'attacco) a causa di una contaminazione radioattiva

22 Marzo 1974 - La Maddalena, Italia. Il giornale "Il Messaggero" parla di tracce di cobalto 60 nelle acque del golfo de La Maddalena.

22 Marzo 1974 - Cipro. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). A spurious radiation monitor alarm. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

Aprile 1974 - Austria. Qualcuno contamina volontariamente il treno Vienna-Linz con Iodio 131 e Iodio 113. Dodici persone vengono ricoverate. Gli autori dell'attentato non sono mai scoperti.

Aprile 1974 - La Maddalena, Italia. I dati del CNEN evidenziano, fin dal 1972, un aumento della diffusione del cobalto e del manganese, attribuibili ai sommergibili, nel golfo de La Maddalena

7 Aprile 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Wyandot (T-AKA-92) is in collision with merchant ship Sacramento Venture off the entrance to Keelung, Taiwan. There were no casualties.

17 Aprile 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Renown strikes the seabed while carrying out an exercise in the Firth of Clyde. The submarine had just completed an expensive refit in Rosyth but was not carrying nuclear warheads. The captain Commander Robin Whiteside faced a court-martial on 11 June.

25 Aprile 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Du Pont (DD-941) collides with the left swing span of a bridge at Yorktown, Virginia. The ship suffers damage to the forward mast while the bridge is closed to traffic for about an hour.

Maggio 1974 - Casaccia (Italia). Si spacca un recipiente contenente plutonio. Non si sa altro.

1 Maggio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In May the USS Pintado (SSN-672) reportedly collides almost head-on with a Soviet Yankee class nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine while cruising 200 feet deep in the approaches to the Petropavlovsk naval base on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The Soviet submarine surfaced immediately, but the extent of damage was not known. The Pintado departed from the area at top underwater speed and proceeded to Guam where it entered drydock for repairs lasting seven weeks. The collision smashed much of the Pintado's detection sonar, a starboard side torpedo hatch was jammed shut and diving plane received moderate damage.The Pintado was on an intelligence gathering mission in Soviet territorial waters.

6 Maggio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Jallao (SS-368) experiences an explosion in the engine room while providing services in the Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, operating area. An electrical arc ignited the engine room atmosphere causing a quick flash. The submarine surfaces and returns to port needing minor repairsand soot clean-up. Sixteen crewmembers are hospitalized with smoke inhalation effects and one with burns.

18 Maggio 1974 - India: primo test nucleare nel poligono di Kophkran - Rajastan.

23 Maggio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An explosion in the hold of USS John R. Craig (DD-885) underoverhaul in drydock at a civilian shipyard at Swan Island, Oregon, rocks the destroyer and buckles its plates, injuring 18. Welding was being done in the area where the explosion occurred.

28 Maggio 1974 - Usa. L'Usaec comunica che 861 anomalie si sono prodotte nel 1973 nei 42 reattori in funzione; che 371 avrebbero potuto essere serie e che 18 lo furono realmente (di cui 12 con fuga di radioattività)

Giugno 1974 - Parsippany, New Jersey, USA: incidente da irradiazione One person was exposed to a cobalt-60 source for 5-10 seconds before he realized the source was exposed and left the source location. He received a dose of about 400 rem and developed acute radiation syndrome but recovered despite an unsuccessful bone marrow transplant.

27 Luglio 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) suffers a fire in an electrical maintenance area off California, no reported injuries.

3 Agosto 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A wave sweeps over the forward deck of the USS Hawkins (DD-873) as it is refueling from the USS Marias (T-AO-57) in the Indian Ocean, injuring seven. An emergency visit to Diego Suarez, Madagascar, is made so the men can be treated at a hospital.

5 Agosto 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Lipan (ATF-85) collides with the tanker Atlantic Prestige between Vancouver Island and Washington while towing another vessel.

31 Agosto 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy coastal minesweeper HMS Brinton collides with a museum ship.

1 Settembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The first and only Japanese nuclear-powered merchant ship, the Mutsu, develops a reactor leak during its first test voyage in the Pacific. The leakage apparently results from a faulty design in the reactor's shielding system and involves the release of radiation (gamma rays and neutrons escaping through a hatch cover) rather than an a leak of actual radioactive materials. Emergency repairs are made reportedly with a thick layer of sticky boiled rice. However, the ship drifts for weeks offnor thern Japan due to protests by fishermen who are concerned about contamination of their scallop beds in the vicinity of the ship's homeport of Mutsu and refuse to allow the the ship to dock. The fishermen end their protest after the government promises compensation and the ship docks in Mutsu on 15 October. In 1978 the ship is moved to Sasebo, Japan, and work on repairing the leak begins in August 1980 at the Sasebo Heavy Industries Company.

3 Settembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Shortly after getting underway in Norfolk, Virginia, the USS Butte (AE-27) suffers a major fire in the main switchboard, disrupting all ship support electrical supply. The Butte is towed back to the naval base for repairs which include replacing the switchboard.

19 Settembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Sovereign develops a steering defect during exercises off the west coast of Scotland while on the surface. On 23 September the ship istowed from the Coulport naval base to the submarine base at Faslane, Scotland, for investigation and repair.

27 Settembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The New York Times reports that Turkey's semi-official Anatolian News Agency said that a Soviet Kashin class guided missile destroyer exploded and sank in the Black Sea with no survivors about two weeks ago. Both Turkish Navy officials and theU.S. Defense Department refuse to confirm reports of the sinking. The Kashin class can carry nuclear-capable SA-N-1 Goa surface-to-air missiles, but qualified sources doubted the destroyer was carrying any nuclear-armed versions since the ship was on its sea trials. Later newspaper accounts based on U.S. intelligence sources report that 75 or more people may have been rescued, but even so a minimum of 275 perished.

19 Ottobre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Richard S. Edwards (DD-950) experiences one-foot deep flooding in the fire room while in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The water is pumped out.

Novembre 1974 - Germania. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Hoist cable of a jib crane slipped on its drum and allowed a WE177 in its container to fall a short distance onto is trolley. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

2 Novembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A four-hour fire aboard the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Bristol damages the turbine and boiler rooms and injures four sailors. The ship was on sea trials off Pembrokeshire, U.K., and had to betowed back to port.

3 Novembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS James Madison (SSBN-627) collides with an unknown Soviet submarine in the North Sea according to Jack Anderson's regular newspaper column of 1 January 1975. The collision left a nine-foot scrape in the Madison. According to Anderson the two submarines came within inches of sinking one another. The Madison proceeded to Holy Loch, Scotland, to effect repairs. The U.S. Navy refused to comment on the incident.

29 Novembre 1974 - Sardegna, Italia. Il settimanale corso Kirn denuncia il ritrovamento di rifiuti radioattivi sotterrati a S. Stefano e individuati con rilevatori geiger. Il giorno successivo i Comandi militari americani rassicurano: «Ci sono, ma non sono pericolosi».

6 Dicembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Yukon (T-AO-152) experiences a fire in the electrical control board which renders the ship dead in the water in the western Mediterranean. The fire occurrs in heavy weather and the ship drifts toward the Algerian coast.

12 Dicembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Edson (DD-946) experiences a fire in the after fire room while training with USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) off Hawaii. The fire was caused by the ignition of oil which was spraying from a rupture in a lube oil guage line. The area was secured and fire extinguished with no personnel casualties. The destroyer returned to Pearl Harbor under its own power for
repairs.

13 Dicembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CV-60) suffers a major aircraft accident when a jet blast deflector is inadvertently raised into the the turning propeller of a plane while the ship is involved in exercise "National Week XVII" in the Tyrrhenian Sea, injuring five crewmen and damaging five planes.

14 Dicembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Kamehameha (SSBN-642) strikes submerged fishing gearduring independent exercises in the central Mediterranean. Deep hull scrapes on the port side, a sheared underwater log sword, and a damaged screw result. The vessel returns to port underi ts own power for repairs.

24 Dicembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Argentine warship Candido de Lasala suffers an explosionin its boiler room in the English Channel, killing two and injuring three.

31 Dicembre 1974 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Before 1975, a U.S. submarine engaged in a Holystone intelligence gathering mission reportedly is temporarily grounded in Vladivostok harbor. This apparently occurs when the vessel was running on low power to avoid detection ands trikes the harbor bottom. It eventually frees itself. (See 5/25/75 entry. This accident is specifically reported as separate from other New York Times accounts of Holystone operations.)

Inverno 1974/75 - Leningrado (ora San Pietroburgo), URSS. Una serie di incidenti viene segnalata nell'inverno tra il 1974 e il 1975 presso la centrale nucleare di Leningrado, in Unione Sovietica. Tre morti accertati.

1974/1976 - USA: incidente radioterapico Continuing calibration of a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit was based on an erroneous decay curve, resulting in overexposures rising from 10% in the first 5 months to 50% 22 months after initial calibration. The medical physicist who did the calibration falsified documents to conceal the error. The problem was discovered by outside consultants brought in by the hospital to investigate apparent overexposures of some patients. Of 426 patients treated in the last 16 months before indentification of the problem, 300 died within one year of their pre-treatment cancer and 88 survived but had immediate severe complications related to the irradiated sites; 10 deaths have been attributed to overexposures.

1974-1986 - United States: 32 acts of intentional damage or suspected sabotage at domestic nuclear facilities

1974-1985 - Total of nearly 100 instances that involved response by NEST

1974-1980 - United States: total of about 80 instances of nuclear threats deemed credible; only two prompted NEST deployment

1975 - Francia. Due bombe esplodono in un canale di raffreddamento di una centrale in Bretagna danneggiando alcuni impianti

1975 - Tucuman, Argentina: incidente radioterapico Two employees were injured by radiation from a cobalt-60 source in a teletherapy unit. A failure of unit mechanisms caused high doses to the fingers of a technician and a physician, producing radiation burns on the fingers.

1975 - Brescia, Lombardia, Italia: incidente da irraggiamento alimentare One person was exposed to a cobalt-60 source in a cereal irradiation facility by climbing onto a conveyor belt to access the irradiation room. He was soon admitted to a hospital where it was initially thought his symptoms were due to exposure to pesticides; it was more than 2 days before he was correctly diagnosed as suffering from radiation exposure. The individual received a whole-body dose of 1,200-rem, with non-uniform exposure, and died 13 days later.

Gennaio 1975 - Usa. Viene ordinata la chiusura di 23 reattori per guasti nel sistema di raffreddamento, vibrazioni anormali e piccole fughe di gas radioattivo

5 Gennaio 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Enhance (MSO-437) is disabled by an engine room fire when a ruptured "O" ring in a lube oil filter causes the turbo charger to explode while operating off San Diego, California.

20 Gennaio 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Newman K. Perry (DD-883) strikes an unknown object off New Jersey, cutting a small hole in the engine room and causing minor flooding.

16 Febbraio 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Swordfish (SSN-579) runs aground near Lanai, Hawaii, while conducting post-overhaul trials. The submarine surfacessafely and returns to Pearl Harbor for inspection and repair. The Navy says the submarine damaged sensor devices mounted onhull, but there were no breaks in the hull. The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, however, receives reports that a torpedo room flooded. The Navy denies this.

24 Febbraio 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kansas City (AOR-3) is struck by the USS Henry B.Wilson (DDG-7) while moored at Subic Bay, Philippines, and both ships receive minor damage.

3 Marzo 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) and USS Nashville (LPD-13) are severely damaged when the Iwo Jima loses steering control and rams into the Nashville during highline transfer about 1,000 miles south west of the Azores.

5 Marzo 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Edward McDonnell (FF-1043) is struck from astern by a Finnish merchant ship while entering Hamburg, West Germany, in rain and fog. The collision opens an eight-foot-square hole above the waterline of the frigate.

22 Marzo 1975 - Brown's Ferry, Decatur, Alabama (Usa). Per cercare la presenza di correnti d'aria nella cabina di comando della centrale. viene usata una candela che, a sua volta, appicca il fuoco a tutti i cavi elettrici. Si bloccano tutti i sistemi di sicurezza. Si riesce a rimediare fortunosamente (per un resoconto più dettagliato di questo grave incidente vedi il «Corriere della sera» del 2/7/1977, p. 3.). Secondo il calcolo delle probabilità questo tipo di incidente può verificarsi in un caso su mille miliardi!

24 Marzo 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dace (SSN-607) collides with a fishing vessel while surfaced in the Narraganset Bay area off Rhode Island. There was no reported damage to the submarine.

26 Marzo 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Holland (AS-32) suffers a Class Alpha fire caused by spontaneous combustion of fiber glass materials in a sanding room while undergoing overhaul at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington.

8 Aprile 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Meredith (DD-890) suffers an explosion and fire in a fresh water tank in the forward fire room while undergoing overhaul in Jacksonville, Florida, killing two civilian workers.

8 Aprile 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Koelsch (FF-1049) experiences flooding in the diesel generator room when an air conditioning main ruptures while in Mayport, Florida.

23 Aprile 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Snook (SSN-592) becomes entangled in a net of a probable Soviet fishing trawler while submerged at a depth of 150 feet in a submarine diving area 30 miles off San Francisco, California. The Snook is pulled to periscope depth immediately a stern of the fishing ship, however it breaks free and clears the area. About 25 Soviet fishing vessels are in the
area when the incident occurrs.

29 Aprile 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Patterson (FF-1061) experiences flooding in a machinery room when an air compressor saltwater cooling line ruptures while in upkeep in Mayport, Florida.

25 Maggio 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A lengthy story in the New York Times details a secret U.S. Navy submarine intelligence gathering program code-named Holystone. Using specially equipped submarines the Navy has spied on the Soviet Union and other countries since the early 1960s, at times within their three-mile limit. Several accidents resulted from these missions including the damaging of a U.S. submarine which surfaced under a Soviet ship during a Soviet fleet exercise as well as accidents listed at 12/31/65, 12/31/67, 12/31/68, 10/31/69, 11/14/69, 3/31/71, 5/1/74, and 12/31/74. Further exposes of the Holystone program are in the Washington Post (1/4/74), New York Times (7/4 and 7/6/75), Village Voice (2/16/76), Chicago Tribune(12/4/77) and Baltimore Sun (4/18/81). According to the reports, most of the submarines involved in Holystone missions were Sturgeon class nuclear-powered attack submarines, which also were armed with nuclear weapons.

10 Giugno 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) suffers major flooding in its Number 1 machinery room while 135 nautical miles north west of Wake Island, crossing to the western Pacific.

15 Giugno 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A boiler flareback explosion damages two boilers and adjacent uptakes of the USS Independence (CV-62) while moored at Norfolk, Virginia.

20 Giugno 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Navy announces eight minor fires that occurred aboard the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) earlier in the week may have beenset by a sailor in an effort to forestall its departure from Norfolk, Virginia, on a seven-month deployment.

5 Agosto 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy Reserve minesweeper HMS Killiecrankie rams ayacht, sinking it, and damages two other pleasure craft in Great Yarmouth harbor, U.K., when the minesweeper tries to turn while leaving Yarmouth at the end of a courtesy visit.

7 Agosto 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dahlgren (DDG-43) collides with the Panamanian freighter Eurybates about three-and-one-half miles east of Port Colon in the Panama Canal Zone. There are no injuries.

15 Agosto 1975 - France: Two bombs exploded at Mt. d'Arree NPS in Brittany: one at far end of canal between plant and cooling lake, the other damaging a air chimney for plant buildings in the compound. The reactor was shut down temporarily for inspection

22 Settembre 1975 - Ionio meridionale, Italia. La portaerei americana Kennedy si scontra con
l'incrociatore americano Belknap a duecento miglia da Taranto, nello Ionio meridionale. Scoppia un incendio che sfiora letestate nucleari dei missili Terrier e parte uno dei più alti livelli di SOS nucleare, denominato 'broken arrow'. L'incidente è reso noto solo nel 1989. "Se le fiamme avessero raggiunto le testate le possibilità sarebbero state due: o le testate atomiche sarebbero esplose con effetti facilmente immaginabili, oppure la nave sarebbe affondata in zona frequentata dai pescherecci italiani, con conseguenze ambientali molto gravi" (William Arkin, esperto di
questioni militari).

29 Settembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Albany (CG-10) suffers a Class Bravo fire after a fuel oil strainer explosion east of Norfolk while en route to northern Europe, killing one. On 1 October the Albany rejoins the Second Fleet task group headed for northern Europe, with repairs scheduled to take place in Europe.

Ottobre/Novembre 1975 - Apra Harbor, isola di Guam. Il sommergibile USS Proteus scarica in mare acqua di raffreddamento radioattiva. A Geiger counter at two of the harbor's public beaches showed 100 millirems/hour, fifty times the allowable dose.

23 Ottobre 1975 - Yucca Flats, Nevada. A canister containing a nuclear weapon's fissile core fell 40 feet to the bottom of a shaft during preparations for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site. The warhead had a yield of less than 20 kilotons. Although the warhead did not detonate and there was no leakage of radioactive material, 11 Nevada Test Site workers were injured. The device was to be detonated as part of a series of underground tests code-named "Peninsula." The incident was verified by U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) spokesman, David Miller. According to the ERDA, safety mechanisms built into the warhead precluded the possibility that the device could have accidentally detonated.

24 Ottobre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Farragut (DDG-37) is momentarily grounded while departing Den Helder, Netherlands, for Brest, France. Both sonar domes are damaged and the ship proceeds at reduced speed.

12 Novembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate Achilles collides with the tanker Olympic Alliance in thick fog in the English Channel, no reported injuries.

19 Novembre 1975 - Gundremmingen, Germania. Muoiono 2 operai nel reattore di Gundremmingen. I due dovevano riparare una valvola, ma all'improvviso escono 4 litri di vapore radioattivo ad una pressione di 60 atmosfere e ad una temperatura di 270°C. Nessuna possibilità di salvezza per i due.

20 Novembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Independence (CV-62) is in a minor collision with the USS Denebola (AF-56) during night replenishment in the North Sea.

21 Novembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Belknap (CG-26) is involved in an oil spill during refueling with the USS Waccamaw (T-AO-109) in the Ionian Seaabout 25 nautical miles from Italy.

22 Novembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and the USS Belknap (CG-26) collide in rough seas at night during air exercises about 70 miles east of Sicily. The overhanging flight deck of the carrier cuts into the superstructure of the cruiser setting off fires on the Belknap which are not controlled for two-and-one-half hours on account of frequent flarebacks. The
commander of Carrier Striking Forces for the U.S. Sixth fleet, reporting to higher commands shortly after the collision, declares a possible nuclear weapons accident -- a Broken Arrow -- stating there was a "high probability that nuclear weapons [W45 Terrier missile warheads] on the USS Belknap were involved in fire and explosions," but there were "no direct communications with the Belknap at this time," and "no positive indications that explosions were directly related to nuclear weapons." He also notes that casualties recovered thus far show no exposure to radiation. Nonetheless, monitoring and medical teams were "alerted to the possibility of contamination." He adds that the nuclear weapons on board the Kennedy were not affected. An hour after the Broken Arrow message was sent the USS Claude V. Ricketts (DDG-5), alongside the Belknap fighting the fire, reported that Belknap personnel said "no radiation hazard exists aboard." Six people aboard the Belknap and one aboard the Kennedy are killed. The Belknap suffers serious damage, is put out of commission, and towed back to theU.S. to effect repairs lasting four years. It returns to the fleet in 1980. Smaller fires and other damage on the Kennedy are quickly contained and the carrier continues operations. 22 Novembre 1975 - Italia. Due navi americane, la portaerei J.F.Kennedy e l'incrociatore Belknap, a bordo della quale vi erano armi nucleari, (come testimonia l'allarme in codice "broken arrow" che fu lanciato dal comandante della sesta flotta americana e che indica appunto un incidente che vede coinvolte armi nucleari) si scontrano al largo della Sicilia. La Belknap prende fuoco e viene gravemente danneggiata, ma l'incendio è fermato a pochi metri dal magazzino che contiene le armi atomiche.

24 Novembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: An ASROC motor prematurely ignites seriously burning one man while the USS Richard S. Edwards (DD-950) is en route to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. A manufacturing defect in one
of the rocket motor components is determined to be the accident's cause.

25 Novembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A plane attempting to land on the USS Midway (CV-41) strikes the ramp, bolts, impacts the barricade, and strikes another plane during post- "Midlink" exercises in the Indian Ocean. Flyingdebr is injures two crewmen.

6 Dicembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Haddock (SSN-621) develops a leak and floods during a deep dive while on a test run near Hawaii. The U.S. Navy confirms the incident, but denies the vessel is unsafe as crew members had charged in late October. A number of enlisted menhad protested sending the ship to sea, claiming it had cracks in the main cooling piping, leaks, and malfunctions and deficiencies in other systems, including the steering mechanism. The Navy replied that in accordance with strict safety proceduresany problems are corrected before the ship goes to sea.

7 Dicembre 1975 - Lubmin (Repubblica Democratica Tedesca). Un cortocircuito nell'impianto della Centrale di Lubmin, sul litorale baltico nella Germania Orientale, provoca una parziale fusione del nucleo del reattore.

15 Dicembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CV-60) and the USS Mississinewa (AO-144) are in a minor collision during underway replenishment off the Florida coast.

16 Dicembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Inchon (LPH-12) and the USS Caloosahatchee (AO-98) are in a minor collision during refueling in rough seas west of Italy.

20 Dicembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Santa Barbara (AE-28) suffers a Class Alpha fire while moored at Charleston, South Carolina, without crew and ammunition in preparation for regular overhaul.

31 Dicembre 1975 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Around 1975, according to The Virginian-Pilot and The Ledger-Star, the USS California (CGN-36) spills 15 to 20 gallons of primary coolant while the ship is at the Norfolk Naval Base, Virginia.

1976 - Largo della Sicilia, Italia. Scontro tra due navi statunitensi (portaerei J.F.Kennedy ed incrociatore Belknap, entrambe dotate di armi nucleari) durante un'esercitazione al largo della Sicilia, con rischio di grave incidente nella Santa Barbara nucleare. In quell'occasione fu lanciato l'allarme Broken Arrow, il più grave secondo la classificazione USA.

1976? - USA: incidenti da fluoroscopio Skin injuries to two patients occurred as a result of fluoroscopy procedures. One patient received an estimated 2200 rads during an angiogram, the other an estimated 5800 rads during placement of a pacemaker.

1976 - Windscale (GB). Il reattore contamina di Iodio 131 centinaia di miglia di territorio.

Gennaio 1976 - Gundremmingen, Germania. La neve caduta in abbondanza spezza le linee elettriche che convogliano l'energia prodotta nel reattore. Il reattore spento con la procedura d'emergenza, e soggetto ad una importante pressione interna, non previene l'apertura delle valvole di sicurezza e la liberazione di vapore radioattivo.

27 Gennaio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: While anchored in Augusta Bay, Sicily, the USS Spiegel Grove(LSD-32) is struck on the bow and starboard quarter by the Panamanian merchant vessel Honesty which had dragged anchor during winds of 50 knots.

27 Gennaio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) exiting Augusta Bay, Sicily, goes aground on a peak of coral which pushes in areas on either side of the bow, but does not crack or hole the ship. On 30 January, with cargo, personnel, helicopters, and fuel off-loadedto assist the effort, the ship is refloated.

1 Febbraio 1976 - La Madalena, Italia. Secondo la stampa locale, si sarebbero registrati a La Maddalena cinque casi di cranioschisi nelle nascite degli ultimi tempi. La pesante incidenza della mortale malformazione cranica dei neonati è imputabile ad agente esterno, tra i quali si affaccia l'ipotesi della radioattività.

13 Febbraio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) experiences a boiler casualty while participating in a "Rum Punch" exercise in the Caribbean. The casualty limits the ship's speed to 15 knots and half power. Anembarked Royal NetherlandsMarine Unit was airlifted to Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and the helicopter carrier got underway for New Orleans.

29 Febbraio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sellers (DDG-11) conducted an emergency underway at Iskenderun, Turkey, as heavy weather made its position at the NATO fuel pier untenable. The destroyer suffered some scraping and minor damage along the main deck but was able to clear without injuries to crew or damage below the waterline.

29 Febbraio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS New Orleans (LPH-11), crossing from the western Pacific to San Diego, California, suffers vibrations at speeds aboveten knots. It is discovered that one blade is missing from the four-bladed screw.On 2 March it alters course from California to Hawaii as the damage impedes its progress.

21 Marzo 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The British iron ore carrier Cape Ortegal is hit by a rocket, believed to be fired by a Japanese defense force aircraft during an exercise.

30 Marzo 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Elmer Montgomery (FF-1082) suffers a fire in a storeroom while in port at Norfolk, Virginia. Theship's crew with assistance from the USS Mitscher (DDG-35) and the base fire department extinguish the fire. No personnel are injured andt he damage is minor.

16 Aprile 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Albany (CG-10) experiences a nuclear weapons incident -- Dull Sword -- when during handling of TALOS nuclear warhead trainers a top-side hoist fails as the ship is finishing repairs and up keep at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia. On 4 May 1976 a TALOS safety working group convenes aboard the Albany to observe and evaluate modifications made to the hoist as a result of the accident.

1 Maggio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: Early May -- a Norwegian fishing vessel in international waters off Murmansk snags a Soviet nuclear-powered attack submarine's fin at about 450 feet below the surface. The Soviet boat surfaced and the fisherman could see the Soviet crewmen cutting at the entangling cables with hammer and chisels. The submarine was later towed toward Murmansk by Soviet rescue ships.

1 Maggio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Sixth Fleet flagship USS Little Rock (CG-4) experiences a casualty in the main engine lube oil system in the Tyrrhenian Sea. On 2 May it enters Naples for repairs.

1 Maggio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In May fuel oil leaks into the lower level of the ballistic missile magazine aboard the USS Proteus (AS-19)while the ship is in Apra Harbor, Guam. According to the Navy, the leak was detected by magazine personnel and stopped.

2 Maggio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Warspite suffers a fire in a diesel generating room while berthed in Royal Seaforth Dock, Crosby on the Mersey, U.K., injuring three. The Ministry of Defense says "There is absolutely no nuclear hazard." Originally it is anticipated that its patrol would be delayed one week. However, in January 1979 it is reported that the fire was caused by a failure of a coupling on a lubricating oil pipe, which allowed oil to be sprayed over a diesel generator. And, that repairs were still believed to be continuing at a cost of 5,194,000 pounds sterling.

8 Maggio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Corry (DD-817) while sailing outbound on the Delaware River is struck on the starboard side by the West German merchantman Mormannia. The Corry suffers minor hull damage above the waterline with no personnel injuries.

12 May 1976 - Maine, USA: Two bombs exploded in the headquarters of the Central Maine Power Company in Augusta; a Fred Hampton Unit of the People's Forces claimed responsibility and demanded end to expansion of nuclear powerplants

31 Maggio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Vesole (DD-878) suffers a fire while moored alongside a pier at Taranto, Italy. It was started by a yard worker welding on the base of the Number 1 stack. Electrical cables were shorted and the destroyer's operational capability was affected. There were no injuries.

9 Giugno 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Wabash (AOR-5) and USS Flint (AE-32) collide while conducting towing exercises about 900 nautical miles north west of Hawaii. Both ships continue on ward to a western Pacific deployment.

1 Luglio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: The Norwegian fishing trawler Sjovik snags the bow of a Soviet November class nuclear-powered attack submarine and is dragged backward for about a mile in the Barents Sea north of the Soviet naval base at Murmansk. The submarine surfaces, cuts and proceeds on the surface toward Murmansk.

2 Luglio 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire breaks out in the main engine room of the USS Kilauea(AE-26), while it is drydocked for overhaul at Richmond, Virginia.

27 Luglio 1976 - USA. Esplosione di una carica da 20-150 chilotoni nel sottosuolo del Nevada. Il giorno seguente, la città di Tang-shan (Cina) e 800.000 persone furono distrutte da un sisma che fu valutato di magnitudine 8,2 nella scala Richter.

Agosto 1976 - An explosion at the Hanford site Plutonium Finishing Plant contaminated several workers. The plant converted plutonium nitrate solutions into metallic form for nuclear weapons production facilities. The explosion blew out a quarter-inch-thick lead glass window that shielded workers from radioactive materials. One 64-year-old worker, Harold McCluskey, was showered with nitric acid and radioactive pieces of glass. The worker inhaled the largest dose of 241Am ever recorded. He inhaled about 500 times the U.S. government occupational standards for the element. The worker was placed in isolation for five months and given an experimental drug to flush the isotope from his body. By 1977, his body's radiation count had fallen by about 80 percent. When the worker returned home, friends and church members avoided him. His minister finally had to tell people it was safe to be around him. He died of natural causes in 1987 at age 75.

11 Agosto 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy patrol vessel HMS Reward collides with the freighter Plainsman and sinks off the coast of Scotland. All 40 crewmen are rescued.

25 Agosto 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Conyngham (DDG-17) and USS Josephus Daniels (CG-27) are in a minor collision during "National Week21" exercises in the western Mediterranean.

25 Agosto 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Pollack (SSN-603) snags the nets of Japanese fishing boats in the eastern channel of the the Tsushima Strait. Two boats cut away and abandon their nets. The Pollack suffers no major damage and there is no known damage to the fishing boats.

28 Agosto 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Echo II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine strikes the USS Voge (FF-1047) with its sail on the port quarter below the helicopter hangar, about 150 miles south west of Souda Bay, Crete. The submarine departs the area under its own power to the Kithera Anchorage off Greece escorted by Soviet ships. The Voge suffers split bulkheads, buckled plating, and a damaged propeller and is towed to Souda Bay by the Moinster (FF-1097) and Preserver (ARS-8). The submarine damages its sail. In September the Voge is towed to Toulon, France. On 7 September the U.S. State Department announces that the U.S. and Soviet Union had exchanged notes, each blaming the other for the collision.

9 Settembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Turkish diesel submarine Dumlupinar and the freighter Fizik Vavilov collide in the Dardanelles, no reported casualties.

13-15 Settembre 1976 - URSS. Esecuzione di test nucleari sotterranei. Il 16 settembre un terremoto (7,7 Richter) rade al suolo la città iraniana di Tabas, causando 25.000 vittime

14 Settembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bordelon (DD-881) experiences steering control difficulties during refueling and collides with the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) 75 miles north west of Scapa Flow, Scotland, causing top side damage to the Bordelon and injuring six. Damage to the Kennedy is minor. The Bordelon proceeds to Plymouth, U.K., for repairs before going to the United States.The Navy subsequently decommissions the ship because repairs would be too expensive.

14 Settembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Raleigh (LPD-1) leaves Moorehead City, North Carolina, after a week's delay caused by inoperative feed pumps to participate in the "Teamwork" exercises off Norway. While crossing the Atlantic, the ship experiences further engineering problems, causing the ship to be diverted to Plymouth, U.K. The ship arrives 24 September for two weeks of repairs to the feed pumps before sailing on 9 October.

20 Settembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Mermaid and the minesweeper HMS Fittleton collide during the NATO exercise "Teamwork 76" in the North Sea. The Fittleton capsizes and sinks, killing 12.

22 Settembre 1976 - Comunicato stampa del Comando Marina italiano di La Maddalena diramato nella serata. Il RAY è entrato nella rada della Maddalena il mattino di oggi per riparazioni nella parte prodiera dello scafo. L'autorità militare italiana conferma che l'incidente non avrebbe impegnato l'apparato di propulsione e che non sussisterebbe pericolo di inquinamento marino. Rispondendo ad un cronista locale, il Commodoro Shelton, comandante della base americana di La Maddalena, afferma che il RAY, con un solo ferito, sarebbe giunto a S. Stefano nella tarda serata di mercoledì 21. Appare clamorosa la contraddizione con la nota della Marina Italiana sulla data di arrivo a S. Stefano del RAY.

24 Settembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Glasgow suffers a fire while being fitted out at Swan Hunter Tyneside yard, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, U.K., killing eight workmen.

Ottobre 1976 -Tallin (Urss). Salta in aria una centrale atomica sotterranea: almeno cento persone muoiono. Le autorità sovietiche negano, ma dopo il 25 ottobre, e per una settimana almeno, un quotidiano russo pubblica una decina di necrologi ogni numero (Per un resoconto più dettagliato di questo incidente vedi «Panorama» de 30/11/1976, p. 145.).

1 Ottobre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, during October the launch compartment of a Soviet nuclear submarine of unknown class catches fire in the Atlantic. Three officers are reported killed. The submarine is able to return to port under its own power.

8 Ottobre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Japanese fishing vessel snags a Soviet Charlie class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine off the Kamchatka Peninsula. The fishing boat is dragged backward until it reels in its nets and the submarine surfaces. The nets are cut to free thesubmarine.

2 Novembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A major explosion takes place in a boiler of the USS Ponchatoula (AO-148) in port at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The explosion blows out the side and back wall of the Number 2 boiler.

19 Dicembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A F-14 Tomcat aircraft misses a landing on the USS Enterprise (CVN-65), and its wingtip strikes two other aircraft on the flight deck before it veers out of control and crashes into the South China Sea.

31 Dicembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : According to raw CIA intelligence reports, during 1976 a sailor who had served on board a Soviet nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine of unknown class dies of "excessive exposure to radiation." He was exposed to radiation on board through his own negligence at least a year prior to his death and was in and out of hospitals before being permanently hospitalized in 1975.

31 Dicembre 1976 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In 1976 a barge carrying 500-lb. bombs breaks away from the USS Detroit (AOE-4) and floats down the York River, Virginia. The barge was stopped after 30 minutes and no damage was reported.

1977 - Spagna. Quattro terroristi dell'ETA attaccano un posto di controllo con l'intenzione di danneggiare il reattore nucleare di Lemoniz

1977 - La Plata, Argentina: incidente radioterapico Three individuals were significantly exposed to x-rays from a crystallography set because the shutter was removed. One operator received a dose to the hands of 1,000 rad, producing radiation burns.

1977 - Bulgaria. Nella centrale di Klozodiy, a causa di un terremoto, salta la strumentazione di controllo del reattore. I tecnici riesconoa fermare la reazione

2 Gennaio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Mizar (T-AGOR-11) suffers a casualty to the port main propulsion drive shafting while en route to Karachi, Pakistan, to participate in Arabian Sea survey operations.

2 Gennaio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A Pakistani midget submarine is lost off Karachi, Pakistan, killing eight.

12 Gennaio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42) collides with the Liberian freighter Oceanus as the Roosevelt proceeds south through the Strait of Messina. Both ships are able to proceed to port under their own power.

17 Gennaio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An LCM-6 landing boat from the USS Trenton (LPD-14) carrying more than 100 marines and sailors returning from liberty over turns in a collision with the Spanish freighter Uriea in Barcelona harbor, Spain, killing 48.

8 Febbraio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A minor boiler explosion occurs aboard the USS Fanning (FF-1076) as the ship operates 15 miles from San Francisco, California, injuring three.

8 Febbraio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire breaks out in the engine room of the USS Preserver (ARS-8) near the Bahamas. The ship is towed by the USS Bowen(FF-1079) to Mayport, Florida, for repairs.

11 Febbraio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Barnstable County (LST-1197) collides with the moored Liberian ship Pounentes while clearing berth under pilot control at Cura‡ao, Netherlands Antilles, resultingin minor damage.

20 Febbraio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CV-61) experiences a Class Alpha fire in the anchor machinery room while drydocked at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington.

22 Febbraio 1977 - Jaslovské Bohunice, Cecoslovacchia: incendio. Operators neglected to remove moisture absorbing materials from a fuel rod assembly before loading it into the KS 150 reactor at power plant A-1. The accident resulted in damaged fuel integrity, extensive corrosion damage of fuel cladding and release of radioactivity into the plant area. The plant was decommissioned following this accident.

12 Marzo 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Mauna Kea (AE-22) loses propulsion because of a mechanical failure in the Number 1 boiler while en route from Guam to Okinawa. It enters Apra harbor, Guam, the next day under tow.

16 Marzo 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Manley (DD-940) suffers a flash-back in a mount during gunnery exercises off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, injuring four. The mount is placed out of commission due to fire and water damage when a second powdercasing explodes after the mount is evacuated.

18 Marzo 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Hepburn (FF-1055) suffers a Class Alpha fire caused by spontaneous combustion of refuse while off San Diego, California.

18 Marzo 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy coastal minesweeper HMS Maxton accidentally fires at the Royal Navy frigate HMS Achilles off the Scottish coast when live shells instead of blanks are used in a practice firing. Two shells hit and cause moderate damage to the Achilles.

20 Marzo 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dyess (DD-880) suffers a wardroom fire apparently caused by arson while in port at Mayport, Florida. There is minor damage.

24 Marzo 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : An inquest records accidental death verdicts for three sailors who died in an engine room fire aboard the Royal Navy frigate HMSAshanti.

Aprile 1977 - El Ferrol (Spagna). Fuga radioattiva. Più di 100 persone contaminate.

2 Aprile 1977 - Atucha, Argentina: incidente radioterapico A worker at a nuclear reactor was not wearing lead gloves and cut his hand on the edge of a plug. The wound was contaminated by 0.1 microcuries of radioactive material producing a localized radiation dose over a period of several years. The incident was identified when the worker later entered a controlled area and the contamination was detected. Surgery was eventually required in 1985 to remove the contamination.

7 Aprile 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: All nine ships in U.S. Navy Task Group 21.2 including the USS Independence (CV-62) suffer varying amounts of damage when they encounter a storm with 20-foot seas about 1,000 miles west of Rota, Spain. Some Independence planes land atLajes Air Base in the Azores.

20 Aprile 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Independence (CV-62) and the USS Truckee (AO-147) collide in the Tyrrhenian Sea during underway replenishment when the Truckee loses steering control.

14 Maggio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Neches (T-AO-183) runs aground in the inner anchorage at Port Suez, Eygpt, while a waiting a pilot. It is refloated three days later following four failed attempts.

19 Maggio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Mizar (T-AGOR-11) suffers an engine room explosion and fire while west of Sumatra, Indonesia. The ship proceeds on one engine to Singapore for repairs.

29 Maggio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sampson (DDG-10) runs aground at the entrance to San Juan, Puerto Rico, but is cleared within an hourby the ship'sengines and one tug. The sonar dome is slightly damaged.

6 Giugno 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Several U.S. Navy ships, including the USS California (CGN-36) and the USS El Paso (LKA-117), part their moorings and suffer minor damage during high winds in the Norfolk, Virginia, area.

15 Giugno 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Trippe (FF-1075) suffers damage to its sonar dome during a search and rescue operation for a crashed Kuwaiti helicopter in the Persian Gulf.

7 Luglio 1977 - USA. Gli Stati Uniti annunciano di aver testato una bomba a neutroni. La decisione del presidente Jimmy Carter sarà disapprovata dalla popolazione ed il programma sarà abbondanato nell'aprile 1978.

12 Luglio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Rich (DD-820) and the USS Caloosahatchee (AO-98) collide north of the U.S. Virgin Islands following underway replenishment when the Rich loses steering control, strikes the oiler's starboard bow, and then continues across the bow raking the Rich's port side. The Rich is escorted to Mayport, Florida.

20 Luglio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Direct (MSO-430) is badly damaged by a two-hour engine room fire about 120 miles south east of Newport, Rhode Island, and is taken under tow to Newport where it arrives the next day.

22 Luglio 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Henry L. Stimson (SSBN-655) fouls the fishing nets of a Spanish trawler while undergoing refresher training in the Rota area off Spain.

Agosto 1977 - Coulport, Gran Bretagna. While a Polaris missile was being lifted during re-alignment, the threads on a securing pin stripped due to the incorrect assembly of a hoist fixture. The missile fell a few inches but did not impact on any other object. There was no damage to missile or warheads.

6 Agosto 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A major Class Bravo fire occurs in the forward engine room of USS Hunley (AS-31) while the ship is part of the Atlantic Fleet. "The excellent response of the Duty Damage Control Party and action of other individuals on board limited the fire to the forward engine room and extinguished it 25 minutes from its start. Fire, smoke, and/or firefighting water damaged the Number 2 main engine, Numbers 1 and 2 main propulsion generators, Numbers 1and 2 ship service generators, Numbers 1 and 2 low pressure air compressors, Number 2 force draft blower, Number 2 evaporator and salinity indicating system, plus runs of electrical cable in the vicinity of the fire. The forward switchboard, 1S, was grounded by firefighting water rendering the forward part of the ship without normal electrical power."

23 Agosto 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: While the USS Saratoga (CV-60) is en route to the Strait of Messina, an aerosol can explodes in the Number 2 incinerator of the ship, causing a fire which threatens the aircraft of Hangar Bay Number 2. According to the Navy, "The fast and professional reaction of the crew and the decision to call away GQ [General Quarters] can be directly credited for the successful handling of the potential disaster."

Settembre 1977 - Rockaway, New Jersey, USA: incidente da irradiazione One person was briefly exposed to a cobalt-60 source in an industrial irradiation facility before he realized the source was exposed, after which he left immediately. The accident resulted from failure of a safety interlock designed to lower the source into a safety pool when personnel are present. He developed acute radiation sickness from an exposure of about 200 rem.

8 Settembre 1977 - Kamchatka, Russia. Il sottomarino sovietico K-171 sgancia accidentalmente un'ogiva nucleare. Una vasta ricerca con diverse navi ed aerei, ne permette il ritrovamento.

20 Settembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Ray (SSN-653) strikes the bottom south of Sardinia, Italy, damaging its bow area. The Ray surfaces and proceeds to La Maddalena naval base on Sardinia escorted by the USS Grayling (SSN-646).

22 Settembre 1977 - Sardegna, Italia. Il sommergibile d'attacco Ray del X squadrone della VI flotta Usa urta contro il fondale nel sud della Sardegna. Secondo il Pentagono non ci sarebbero stati danni al propulsore atomico e l'hunter killer avrebbe raggiunto la base di La Maddalena per le necessarie riparazioni. L'incidente mette a nudo la
La Marina italiana, solo a distanza di 48 ore, ha modo divisionare il danno. Eclatante la violazione degli accordi
internazionali secondo i quali i soccorsi e le riparazioni ai natanti con motori atomici, devono avvenire al largo delle coste, in acque internazionali.

29 Settembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Archerfish (SSN-678) and USS Philadelphia (SSN-690) collide stern to stern at slow speeds at the Groton submarine base, Connecticut, with minor damage reported.

6 Ottobre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CV-60) collides with the Austrian container ship Ville d'Orient in the Strait of Messina with no injuries and minor damage reported.

10 Ottobre 1977 - Oregon, USA: Bomb exploded next to visitor center at Trojan NPS, with Environmental Assault Unit of the New World Liberation Front claiming responsibility

12 Ottobre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sealift Atlantic (T-AO-172) becomes dead in the water about 800 miles north east of Puerto Rico after suffering a propeller casualty. On 15 October the ship is placed under tow by the USS Gear (T-ARS-34) headed toward Puerto Rico.

27 Ottobre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A seaman is acquitted of starting fires on the Royal Navy frigate HMS Gurkha.

24 Novembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Washington Post reports NATO sources believe that the Soviet Navy is experiencing trouble with its Yak-36 V/STOL aircraft after an incident where the flight deck of the Kiev assault ship was set on fire by one of the aircraft. The Kiev itself had only been at sea for two weeks since deployment to the Northern Fleet in Fall 1976.

28 Novembre 1977 - Germania Ovest. An army CH-47 carrying nuclear warheads on a logistical move crashed shortly after takeoff when a fire caused the helicopter to lose power to an engine. The fire was extinguished and the weapons were safely removed to a storage site.

4 Dicembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS W.S. Sims (FF-1059) loses power after a boiler casualty results in the loss of a generator during training 70 miles south of Bermuda. The frigate is able to get underway for Mayport, Florida, after the USS Ainsworth (FF-1090) rigs emergency power from alongside.

6 Dicembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Pintado (SSN-672) sustains damage to the top of its rudder in a minor collision with a South Korean Navy ship during exercises off Korea. The Pintado initiated emergency deepdive procedures when the surface ship turned toward the submarine at close range.

18 Dicembre 1977 - Spain: 4 ETA terrorists attack guard post at Lemoniz NPS, with one terrorist killed; ETA later claimed to have planned to blow up the reactors.

31 Dicembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, in 1977 about 12 Soviet naval officers serving on a nuclear-powered submarine in the Atlantic return to Leningrad via an Aeroflot flight from Canada. The reason for the return was not announced but it was known at the time that these officers were taken from a Soviet submarine in the Atlantic by a Soviet fishing trawler and subsequently transported to Canada where they boarded the plane. The CIA sources suggest this may have been a medical emergency connected with radiation exposure.

31 Dicembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, in 1977 a Soviet nuclear-powered submarine suffers an internal fire while in the Indian Ocean. The submarine is forced to surface in an attempt to fight the fire which takes several days to extinguish. A Soviet trawler subsequently tows the submarine to a port near Vladivostok.

31 Dicembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Around 1977, according to a report in The Virginian-Pilot and The Ledger-Star, 40 to 50 gallons of primary coolant spill from the USS California (CGN-36) while the ship is in Norfolk, Virginia.

31 Dicembre 1977 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Sometime during 1976-77, the Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Repulse suffers a fire, causing 200,000 pounds sterling damage.

1978 - Spagna. Bomba dell'ETA nel generatore di vapore di una centrale nucleare in costruzione. " morti e 14 feriti

1978 - Canada. Il satellite Cosmos 954, un satellite Rorsat sovietico, con materiale radioattivo a bordo, cade per avaria spandendo i suoi pezzi su una vasta porzione dei Territori del Nordovest canadesi, provocando un livello misurabile di inquinamento radioattivo. Fortunatamente la zona era pressoche` disabitata, ma l'URSS dovette risarcire al Canada le spese sostenute per la ricerca e l'eliminazione dei frammenti inquinanti

1978 - Buenos Aries, Argentina: incidente da esposizione a fonte industriale An individual manually handled an iridium-192 industrial source, causing radiation burns to two fingers on the left hand from a localized dose of 1,200 to 1,600 rem.

Gennaio 1978 - Canada. Il satellite sovietico Cosmos 954 con a bordo 50 kg. di uranio altamente arricchito rientrò nell'atmosfera terrestre cadendo sui territori del Nord-Canada. Il Canada lanciò l'operazione Morning Light per la ricerca dei rottami del satellite.

12 Gennaio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French Navy escort vessel Duperre is pulled off by a tuga fter it runs aground in a storm off Brittany at night. The ship is towed into Brest, France.

15 Gennaio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An A-7 Corsair II aircraft crashes upon landing aboard the USS Forrestal (CV-59) while the carrier operates about 50 miles off St. Augustine, Florida, killing one and injuring ten.

18 Gennaio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Cree (ATF-84) is struck by three Mark 82 bombs near a target ship during exercises by planes of the USS Enterprise (CVN-65) off San Diego, California. Two explosions close to the Cree cause flooding while a third lodges in the starboard side and is later defused by an explosives ordnance disposal team. The tug is taken in tow after damage control teams control the flooding.

24 Gennaio 1978 - Canada. Il satellite di sorveglianza sovietico a propulsione nucleare Cosmos 954 con 50 kg. di uranio si sfracella al suolo. Una grande quantità di materiale si spande su una superficie di circa 124.000 kmq in una zona che si estende dal grande lago di Esclaves (degli Schiavi) fino a nord di Alberta e della provincia di Saskatchewan.

22 Febbraio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS L.Y. Spear (AS-36) and the Liberian merchant ship Zephyros receive minor damage in a collision in the Mississippi River.

17 Marzo 1978 - Spain: Bomb exploded in steam generator of Lemoniz NPS killing 2 construction workers and injuring 14, ten minutes after ETA phone call warned of bomb; damage amounted to $6,000,000

1 Aprile 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian : The USS Sealift Mediterranean (T-AO-173) runs aground off Rondo Island, Indonesia, about 30 nautical miles off Sumatra's north western tip.

3 Aprile 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) and the USS Waccamaw (T-AO-109) receive structural damage in a collision north of Corsica, France, when the Waccamaw loses steering control during refueling. Both proceed under their own power to Naples, Italy, for repairs.

25 Aprile 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Concord (AFS-5) is badly damaged by a fire in its cargo spaces while moored at Palma de Majorca, Spain. One hundred and five people are treated for smoke inhalation and minor burns.

Maggio 1978 - Caorso (Italia). Il giorno del collegamento della centrale con la rete elettrica (26 maggio '78) si hanno fughe limitate nel reparto turbine dovute a valvole che non tengono ed ai cattivi calcoli di progettazione delle strutture portanti, come i tiranti che sostengono i tubi del gas radioattivo

3 Maggio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dewey (DDG-45) suffers a fire which damages the missile fire control system while in port at Naples, Italy.

5 Maggio 1978- Setif, Algeria: fonte radiografica compromessa A 25-curie iridium-192 source for industrial radiography was lost when it fell off a truck during transport. Two children, ages 3 and 7, found it and kept it for several days before giving it to their grandmother. She kept it in the kitchen of her house, additionally exposing four other family members. Radiation exposure was only identified by medical personnel 38 days after initial exposure. The grandmother died of radiation injuries including radiation burns and aplasia 53 days later. The two children received whole body doses of 100-140 rem, and localized doses required amputation of fingers and skin grafts. The four women, ages 14-20, developed radiation injuries; one woman suffered a miscarriage, and one developed thyroid cancer in 1994 and later breast cancer. All six survivors were alive in 2000.

14 Maggio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: While surfacing in the western Pacific the USS Darter (SS-576) suffers flooding when about 45,000 pounds of sea water enter the engine room after a snorkel head valve fails. The USS Schofield (FFG-3) escorts the submarine toward Yokosuka, Japan. It arrives 19 May for repairs.

22 Maggio 1978 - Puget Sound, Washington, USA. A bordo del sommergibile nucleare USS Puffer, viene aperta una valvola per errore, rilasciando 1.900 litri di acqua radioattiva.

23 Maggio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: While workers are draining a piping system aboard the USS Puffer (SSN-652), radioactive water spills on the drydock surface at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington. A Navy spokesmen says that "less than 5 gallons" of slightly radioactive water spilled as the workers were draining the liquid into two five-gallon plastic containers, a routine operation. The spill, says the Navy, was due to the inattention of the personnel doing the draining. The water being
drained reportedly was part of the submarine's secondary cooling system.The drydock drain was contaminated, but was closed before any spillage escaped into the sea. According to the Navy, no workers were contaminated. Shipyard employees disputed the Navy's account, saying that the spill was much bigger, about 100 gallons; that response to the spill was slow; and that several workers suffered skin contamination. These reports could not be verified. Subsequently a contaminated 15-by 20-foot section of drydock is jackhammered up, sealed in drums and shipped to a nuclear waste site in Hanford, Washington.

26 Maggio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: About two cups of radioactive water leak from a pipe fitting aboard the USS Aspro (SSN-648) while the submarine is in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington, when a worker fails to shut a valve tightly. According to the Navy, no personnel suffered skin exposure, but the worker detected a small spot of radioactivity on his pants, which was removed and disposed of as radioactive waste. No radioactivity escaped to the outside environment.

31 Maggio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Midway (CV-41) suffers a fire which originates in the exhaust ventilation system, quickly spreads through the 3A boiler uptakes on the second deck, and terminates in the main uptake space, while it is docked in Yokosuka, Japan. The cause of the fire is later thought to be welding in a vent system containing a fine oil mist which ignited and spread.

16 Giugno 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The propeller shaft of the USS Tullibee (SSN-597) snaps just outside the hull causing limited engine room flooding and loss of propulsion while it is submerged in the Mediterranean. The flooding is stopped by tightening the emergency packing on the propeller shaft. The submarine quickly surfaces and is assisted by other U.S. naval vessels. Subsequently it is towed to Rota, Spain, for repairs.

19 Luglio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A helicopter crashes after striking the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Devonshire while executing a fly by of the ship during an air display off the U.K.

25 Luglio 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Opportune (ARS-41) is struck by a dummy training round fired from a U.S. destroyer south of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, while towing a target sled during gunnery exercises.

25 Luglio 1978 - La Maddalena, Italia. Il "Corriere della sera", in un articolo firmato da Gianfranco Ballardin, rivela che i dati della radioattività nell'arcipelago maddalenino, nei mesi da luglio ad ottobre 1977, hanno registrato un brusco aumento. Nelle acque di La Maddalena sarebbero state trovate tracce anche di cobalto 58 e di cobalto 60, come di radio-nichel, di radio-zinco e di radio-ferro.

5 Agosto 1978 - La Maddalena, Italia. Secondo il Presidente del CNEN il brusco aumento di radioattività nelle acque dell'arcipelago maddalenino, per quel periodo oggetto delle rivelazioni riportate dal "Corriere della sera" (25 luglio 1978), sarebbe stato riscontrato anche in altre località e sarebbe attribuibile alle ricadute delle esplosioni nucleari in atmosfera effettuate dalla Cina

19 Agosto 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Echo II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarineis sighted dead in the water near Rockall Bank 140 miles north west of Scotland after experiencing problems with her nuclear power plant. On 20 August a U.S. P-3 Orion aircraft observes the submarine under tow to the Soviet Union south of the Faroe Islands. The exact cause of the problem and the number of possible personnel casualties is unknown.

21 Agosto 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: While operating in the Mediterranean, the crew of the USS Forrestal (CV-59) is called to general quarters about noon due towidespread smoke reported on the third deck amidships. Shortly afterwards, burning boxes are discovered in a fourth deck store room. The fire is put out within ten minutes of the initial alarm.

27 Settembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Detector (MSO-429) suffers a fire in the main engine room ten miles south of New London, Connecticut, and is towed to Newport, Rhode Island.

28 Settembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS General H.H. Arnold (T-AGM-9) is a drift for several hours about 300 nautical miles north west of Adak, Alaska, in the Bering Sea after failure of the main reduction gear bearing.

29 Settembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Fairfax County (LST-1193) suffers extensive damage to its Number 3 engine room and second division berthing compartment in a major fire while en route to Naples, Italy. Two crewmembers are injured and the ship is placed in tow.

19 Ottobre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The commander of the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Oracleis reprimanded for allowing his ship to touch bottom during trials in the narrow Loch Fyne, Strathclyde, Scotland. The bump dented four torpedo tubes, but the hull remained intact and the submarine rose safely to the surface. The submarine was running deeper than usual to avoid a yacht on the
surface, but failed to monitor how close it was to the bottom.

31 Ottobre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Minerva suffers an explosion.

1 Novembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In November the Royal Navy fleet auxiliary HMS Hebe suffers a fire started by a crewmen while at the Gibraltar naval base.

2 Novembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Greek trawler Ayos Nikolaos sinks after colliding with aTurkish gunboat in the Mediterranean, killing one.

20 Novembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Coral Sea (CV-43) suffers a fire of unknown origin while moored at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington, which causes damage to the medical and dental spaces.

21 Novembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CV-60) and the USS Waccamaw (T-AO-109) collide during refueling operations 50 miles south of Crete, with only minor damage and no injuries.

4 Dicembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Olympus dives too slowly and is struck by an unknown merchant ship in the Portland, U.K., exercise area.

6 Dicembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CV-61) experiences an explosion and flash fire during fleet exercises off Baja California which result in minor burns to nine crewmen.

13 Dicembre 1978 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The Royal Navy helicopter carrier HMS Hermes is damaged by fire in a mess deck. Damage is not severe.

13 Dicembre 1978 - Siberian Chemical Combine, Russia: criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio The accident occurred in a facility which processed plutonium metal ingots. Ingots were placed in stainless steel cans within a glovebox. In violation of procedures, one operator asked a second operator to assist him in transferring ingots amongst containers to speed the process. The second operator, unattended, erroneously transferred two ingots to the same container. The first operator returned and transferred two more ingots to this same container, for a total plutonium mass of 10.68 kg. While transferring the fourth ingot, a criticality excursion occurred, producing an energy release that either expelled the fourth ingot or prompted the operator to instinctively withdraw it, ending the excursion. The operator saw a flash of light and felt an instantaneous heating of his hands and arms. The operator received a whole body dose of 250 rads, with a localized dose to his hands of over 2000 rads. Seven other glovebox operators received doses of 5 to 60 rads.

1979 - Stati Uniti: un impiegato tenta una estorsione per denaro mettendo un campione di Biossido di Uranio in una lettera al presidente della GE e minacciando di disperderne un intero contenitore su una città USA

1979 - Francia. Bombe di ecoterroristi danneggiano seriamente una fabbrica di equipaggiamenti nucleari.

1979 - Spagna. Bomba dell'ETA nella camera di una turbina. Un morto

1979 - Spagna. L'ETA provoca diverse migliaia di dollari di danno in una fabbrica di equipaggiamenti nucleari

1979 - France: Environmental terrorists cause $20 million in damages at a nuclear plant

1979 - Virginia: 2 plant operator trainees entered fuel storage building at Surry NPS and damaged four new fuel assemblies by pouring sodium hydroxide on them

1979 - Parana, Argentina: incidente radiografico An auxiliary nurse was exposed to x-rays from a diagnostic fluoroscope unit due to faulty wiring, causing emission of x-rays while the unit was open. The individual received a whole-body dose of 94 rad, resulting in slight depression of bone marrow.

1979 - Montpelier, Francia: incidente da irradiazione An accidental exposure to an iridium-192 radiography source caused significant whole-body and localized exposure to one worker, who had to have his left arm amputated.

Gennaio 1979 - North Carolina: An employee of a GE subcontractor sent extortion letter with sample of uranium dioxide to general manager of GE nuclear faility in Wilmington. Individual had stolen two 5-gallon containers of uranium dioxide and threatened to disperse them in unnamed U.S. city unless he received $100,000 ransom. He was arrested and sentenced to 15 years

17 Gennaio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A mechanic who helped to contain a steam burst after an explosion in the engine room aboard the Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Revenge wins the Queen's Gallantry Medal. He crawled along a foot-wide catwalk below a hot cloud of escaping high-pressure steam as he searched for the leak in the turbo-generator room.

22 Gennaio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Aylwin (FF-1081) suffers a disabling casualty and is towed to Charleston, South Carolina, by the USS Petrel (ASR-14).

1 Febbraio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In February a fire breaks out in the forward boiler room of the USS Manley (DD-940) during preparation to get underway from Mayport, Florida. Twelve men are injured, one later dies and the cost is put at $75 million.

9 Febbraio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Davidson (FF-1045) loses power after a brief fire puts out a boiler in the Philippine Sea. The frigate is towed to Subic Bay where it arrives five day later.

1 Marzo 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French diesel submarine Marsouin is caught in the nets of the French trawler St. Blaise off Brittany. Neither vessel is damaged.

4 Marzo 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Francis Marion (LPA-249) is holed above the waterline and receives structural damage when it is struck by the Greekbulk carrier Starlight near the entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Cape Henry, Virginia.

7 Marzo 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617) becomes tangled in the nets of a Scottish fishing trawler in the sound of Jura off the west coast of Scotland. The Hamilton tows the trawler backward for about 45 minutes until the nets are cut. No injuries or serious damage result.

14 Marzo 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Wainwright (CG-28) runs aground for six hours in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, near the Mount Pleasant Range.

28 Marzo 1979 - Middletown, Pennsylvania, USA: parziale meltdown. Equipment failures and worker mistakes contributed to a loss of coolant and a partial core meltdown at the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor 15 km (9 miles) southeast of Harrisburg. While the reactor was extensively damaged on-site radiation exposure was under 100 millirems (less than annual exposure due to natural sources), with exposure of 1 millirem (10 µSv) to approximately 2 million people. There were no fatalities. Follow up radiological studies predict at most one long-term cancer fatality.

28 Marzo 1979 - Three Mile Island (Harrisburgh, Usa) (scala Ines 5). Il surriscaldamento di un reattore, a seguito della rottura di una pompa nell'impianto di raffreddamento, provoca la parziale fusione del nucleo rilasciando nell'atmosfera gas radioattivi pari a 15mila terabequerel (TBq). Vengono evacuate 3.500 persone.

28 Marzo 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Independence (CV-62) experiences a brief control room fire in the Roosevelt Roads area off Puerto Rico. Thirty people suffer from minor smoke inhalation.

29 Marzo 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CV-61) suffers a main engine turbine casualty requiring extensive repair while training in the Subic Bay operations area off the Philippines.

4 Aprile 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CV-61) sustains substantial damage in a collision with the Liberian tanker Fortune near the eastern approaches to the Strait of Malacca. There are no injuries and the Ranger heads toward Subic Bay while the tanker, holed in the port side from the main deck to the waterline, is towed to Singapore. On 20 April the Ranger voyages to Yokosuka, Japan, after completing interim repairs to her bow.

9 Aprile 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Five fires set by an arsonist aboard the USS John F. Kennedy(CV-67) kill one shipyard worker and injure 34 other people while the carrier undergoes overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia.

27 Aprile 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Pargo (SSN-650) is briefly grounded while entering New London, Connecticut, harbor in heavy fog.

9 Maggio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Savannah (AOR-4) collides with the USS Forrestal(CV-59) after suffering a gyro casualty while servicing the Forrestal in the Caribbean. Both ships suffer minor damage with no personnel casualties.

11 Maggio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Primary coolant water leaks from one of the two nuclear reactors aboard the USS Nimitz (CVN-68). A Navy spokesman says there was no release of radioactivity, no danger to the core, and nodanger to the ship's crew. The ship was operating off the Virginia coast.

11 Maggio 1979 - La Hague, Francia: assalto radiologico An individual placed radioactive graphite fuel element plugs under the driver's seat of a car. The victim sustained a 25-30 rad dose to his spinal bone marrow and 400-500 rads to his testes. The perpetrator, who was trying to kill his employer, was tried and convicted of poisoning by radiation, fined $1,000, and served 9 months in prison.

14 Maggio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Cook (FF-1083) and the USS Mars (AFS-1) collide off Point Loma near San Diego, California, injuring seven.

24 Maggio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619) incurs slight damage to its rudder when it runs aground briefly while entering the New London, Connecticut, harbor in reduced visibility.

26 Maggio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Gray's (FF-1054) living barge receives structural damage of over $1,000,000 in a fire caused by arson while the shipis berthed at Todd Pacific Shipyard, Seattle, Washington.

4 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Woodrow Wilson (SSBN-624) runs aground in heavy fog at Race Rock while en route to New London, Connecticut. The submarine backs off and proceeds to port for inspection and damage assessment.

4 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS George Washington Carver (SSBN-656) snags the nets of a Spanish fishing vessel and drags the boat through the water off Rota, Spain.

5 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two fires break out aboard the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia, but cause no injuries or significant damage.

5 Giugno 1979 - Los Angeles, California, USA: fonte compromessa A radiographer was worker at a temporary job site with a 28-curie iridium-192 industrial radiography source. When leaving the site, he failed to secure the camera and source. The source fell out of the camera and was picked up by a worker who did not know it was radioactive. This worker placed it in a hip pants pocket for 45 minutes before giving it to a plant manager. He incurred a 1.5 megarem surface dose (60,000 rem at 1 cm depth), requiring skin grafts to the buttocks, and a whole body dose of order 68 rem. Four other workers suffered localized radiation injuries to the hands, and 11 individuals were exposed altogether.

12 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Mk 48 conventional torpedo jams between loading equipment and a bulkhead when a chain breaks on the loading mechanism allowing the torpedo to drop several feet aboard the USS Memphis (SSN-691) docked at the Norfolk Naval Station, Virginia. The torpedo is removed two days later. It did not have a triggering device, but Navy sources say had it exploded it easily could have sunk the submarine.

13 Giugno 1979 - Spain: Two ETA guerrillas planted bomb in turbine room of Lemoniz NPS which was later detonated 25 minutes after a warning call. One worker who did not evacuate was killed; a tank containing 5,000 liters of oil was ignited and turbine components were moderately damaged. The ETA claimed responsibility on 16 June

20 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Hawkbill (SSN-666) reactor's primary coolant system develops a leak while the submarine is on maneuvers in Hawaiian waters which lasts for four days. Originally the leak is about two gallons an hour, but by the time the submarine docks at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on 23 June, the leak has been reduced to three-quarts an hour. On 24 June it is stopped. The Navy says none of the water escaped, as it was captured and stored in tanks designed for such contingencies and that none of the crew was in danger. Supplemental coolant water was pumped in to prevent overheating. According to the Navy, "The leakage was caused by normal wear of inside parts of valves. Such leakshappen occasionally."

21 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Enterprise (CVN-65), under overhaul at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, sustains a two-hour Class Alpha fire in a catapult room, machine shop, and passage way.

26 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Forrestal (CV-59) suffers three minor fires while in Mayport, Florida. Arson is suspected.

29 Giugno 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A steward is sentenced for setting fires aboard the Royal Navy frigate HMS Sirius while docked at Devonport, U.K.

3 Luglio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: While at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, a fire sweeps through two berthing spaces aboard the USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2), injuring five. A sailor is arrested on arson charges on 6 July.

3 Luglio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Onyx is freed from the fishing nets of a stationary trawler off Holy Island in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland.

6 Luglio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Lexington (AVT-16) suffers a Class Alpha fire off Pensacola, Florida, and is dead in the water for over an hour when all boilers are shut down as a result.

12 Luglio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Sealift China Sea (T-AO-170) loses power over 150 nautical miles off Subic Bay, Philippines, as a result of an engine casualty. The USS Beaufort (ATS-2) is directed to rendez vous and render assistance.

13 Luglio 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Conyngham (DDG-17) suffers two minor fires on consecutive days in the First Division Berthing Compartment and the Anchor Windlass Room. An investigation leads to the arrest of anarsonist on 14 July, the day of the second fire.

16 Luglio 1979 - Church Rock, Nuovo Messico, USA. Le pareti di un bacino di scorie radioattive si rompono, lasciando fuoriuscire una grande quantità di scorie.

2 Agosto 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Comte de Grasse (DD-974) incurs extensive smoke damage in a three-hour engine room fire while berthed at Norfolk, Virginia.

7 Agosto 1979 - Erwin, Tennessee (USA). La fuoriuscita di uranio arricchito da una installazione nucleare segreta provoca la contaminazione di oltre 1.000 persone. Vengono registrati nella popolazione valori di radioattività fino a cinque volte superiori alla norma.

9 Agosto 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A fire, caused by a broken acetylene line, breaks out aboard the USS Midway (CV-41) while berthed at Yokosuka, Japan, killing one worker and injuring 17 sailors.

2 Settembre 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Truxtun (CGN-35) spills some 13 gallons of radioactive "high-purity water" into San Diego Bay, California. A U.S. Navy spokesman says the spill contained a small amount of radioactivity which was too small to have an impact on the environment. Initial reports had said the ship spilled as muchas 80 to 100 gallons of radioactive water.

19 Settembre 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Dutch diesel submarine Tonijn experiences a fire in the port engine room and loses power while en route for Naples, Italy. The USS Harlan County (LST-1196) leaves Cartagena, Spain, to provide towing assistance to Gibraltar.

22 Settembre 1979 - Oceano Indiano. Senza preavviso, al largo di Capo Buona Speranza ha luogo un'esplosione nucleare. Persone bene informate pensano che sia stato un test israeliano con l'assistenza del SudAfrica.

29 Settembre 1979 - Tucson, Arizona, USA. Il governatore Bruce Babbitt ordina alla Guardia Nazionale di "pulire" la fabbrica American Atomics, che, secondo lui, aveva delle fughe. Nella cucina della scuola pubblica situata di fronte, 300.000 dollari di cibo erani stati contaminati da Tritio radiaottivo; i dolci al cioccolato avevano 56 nCi per litro, due volte e mezzo il limite di sicurezza.

6 Novembre 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two part-time officers are reprimanded after the Royal Navy coastal minesweeper HMS Alfriston runs aground.

9 Novembre 1979 - USA. L'attacco simulato di un missile americano mette in moto accidentalmente un sistema di prevenzioneche imbroglia gli operatori. Nei 6 minuti necessari aad accorgersi dell'errore, erano già in fase di decollo i caccia dalle basi americane e canadesi.

11 Novembre 1979 - Spain: 5 ETA guerrillas entered Equipos Nucleares (Nuclear Instruments) factory in Maliano, planted explosives and kidnapped the 10 guards on duty; guards were released near Santander-Vizcaya border. Charges exploded after midnight, causing $6,000,000 in damage mostly to one end of main factory building. ETA claimed responsibility on 13 November

16 Dicembre 1979 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Storm-force winds over southern England cause a giant crane at the Royal Navy Devonport dockyard to collapse. Thousands of pounds sterling damage to the Royal Navy frigates HMS Minerva and HMS Ambuscade result.

Prima del 1980 -France: Radioactive graphite fuel element plugs placed under driver's seat of a car; victim sustained 25-30 rad dose to his spinal bone marrow and 400-500 rads to his testes. Perpetrator was tried and convicted of poisoning by radiation, fined $1,000, and served 9 months in prison

1980 - Francia: un elemento di combustibile viene collocato sotto la sedia di un'auto. La vittima riceve 25-30 rad al midollo spinale e 400-500 rads ai testicoli

1980 - Garigliano (Caserta - Italia). Ennesimo incidente nella centrale del Garigliano dovuto alle infiltrazioni di acqua di falda nei sotterranei della centrale dove c'erano i contenitori di stoccaggio delle resine provenienti dal sistema di purificazione delle acque del reattore della centrale. L'incidente provoca la fuoriuscita di ingenti quantità di materiale radioattivo (in particolare Cesio 137, Cesio 134 e Cobalto 60). Qualche giorno dopo l'incidente si registra la morte di 25 bufale che avevano pascolato in aree sommerse dal fiume e la moria di grossi pesci lungo il tratto di mare ove sfocia il fiume Garigliano.

1980 - Shanghai, Cina: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at an irradiation facility using a cobalt-60 source. The irradiation room had defective entry interlocks and an individual entered the room during a power failure, acquiring a 500-rad dose. The person also suffered localized exposure injury.

1980 - Texas, USA: incidente radioterapico An accident involving yttrium-90 in nuclear medicine therapy caused 7 deaths.

3 Gennaio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Malaysian oil tanker Santo Prestige loses power and collides with the USS Milwaukee (AOR-2) moored at portside in Norfolk, Virginia. The collision results in a 40- by 15-foot gash in the hull of the Milwaukee.

4 Gennaio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Pecos (AO-65) collides with the moored USS Bradley (FF-1041) at Terminal Island, Los Angeles, California, injuring one, and causing minor damage to the Bradley and a two-foot hole in the Pecos.

16 Gennaio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Okinawa (LPH-3) is placed in tow when it suffers an engineering casualty. The casualty is corrected on 18 January.

5 Febbraio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Inchon (LPH-12) collides with the USS Spiegel Grove (LSD-32) while refueling in the Atlantic while en route to the Mediterranean Sea, with reportedly no injuries and only minor damage.

3 Marzo 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS William H. Standley (CG-32) sustains a ruptured tube casualty to the Number 1B boiler during exercises off the Strait of Hormuz and proceeds to the U.S. Navy Facility at Diego Garcia.

13 Marzo 1980 - Loir-et-Cher, centrale nucleare di Saint-Laurent, Francia. Un incidente porta alla fusione di due elementi combustibili del reattore A2, filiera UNGG (uranio nucleare, grafite, gas), potenza 515 MWe. La placca metallica di contegno dei sensori del reattore, in seguito a fenomeni di corrosione, ostruisce una dozina di canali di blocco della grafite, impedendo così un buon raffreddamento del nocciolo e provocando la fusione di due elementi combustibili. Gravemente danneggiato, il reattore resta indisponibile per circa due anni e mezzo. E' il più grave incidente riferito ad un reattore francese (livello 4 scala INES)

18 Aprile 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Mirka class frigate collides with the Danish minesweeper Fyen in the Baltic Sea during Warsaw Pact exercises. The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs protests the incident, but receives no formal reply.

5 Maggio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two West German Navy ships collide in the Mediterranean off Toulon, France; no injuries.

13 Maggio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Onyx runs aground in Portsmouth harbor, U.K. It takes a tug 20 minutes to pull the ship free.

3 e 6 Giugno 1980 - Località sconosciuta, USA. Un allarme indicante un massiccio attacco missilistico sovietico viene registrato da un computer per le comunicazioni connesso al NORAD. Dopo una rapida consultazione per la valutazione della minaccia, 100 B-52 armati nuclearmente vengono messi in allerta per decollo imminente. L'errore viene individuato, ma lo stesso computer lancia un identico allarme tre giorni dopo il 6 giugno 1980. Viene nuovamente radunata una consultazione per valutare la minaccia e 100 B-52 armati nuclearmente vengono messi in allerta per il decollo. Il problema viene successivamente individuato in un difetto di un circuito integrato del computer, che produceva a caso cifre che rappresentavano il numero dei missili individuati.

4 Giugno 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A lieutenant on the Royal Navy frigate HMS Nubian is reprimanded for negligence following a collision with a Dutch ship.

24 Giugno1980 - Nevada Test Site (USA): test nucleare (Huron King). Il test sotterraneo nucleare Huron King fu patrocinato dal DOD (Department of Defense). Il test coinvolse un dispositivo di circa 20 Kilotoni e testò gli effetti dell'impulso elettromagnetico generato (SGEMP) su un satellite di comunicazione militare funzionante in larga scala DSCS-3. Il dispositivo spaziale venne contenuto in un grande carro corrazzato.

26 Giugno 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Constellation (CV-64) collides with a Bangladesh merchant ship in the Arabian Sea. The U.S. Navy says there was minor damage to both ships.

8 Luglio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The small Danish Home Guard cutter MHV 94 is rammed by the East German minesweeper Komet nine miles south of Gedser, Denmark, in the Baltic Sea. The collision causes severe damage to the front of the cutter. Denmark protests to East
Germany over incident.

20 Luglio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Gurnard (SSN-662) spills 30 gallons of water containing radioactive material into San Diego Bay, California. A Navyspokesman says the leak occurred when a crewman of the Gurnard accidentally opened a valve allowing the water to escape. The spokesman said a water sample was taken and there was no increase in the general background radioactive level in the area where the spill happened.

26 Luglio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy patrol boat HMS Sabre crashes at Alderney, Channel Islands, in the English Channel.

29 Luglio 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Midway (CV-41) collides with the Panamanian merchantship Cactus while transiting the passage between Palawan Island of the Philippines and the coast of Northern Borneo 450 nautical miles south west of Subic Bay en route to Singapore. The Midway, the U.S. Navy says, sustained no serious damage although twoU.S. sailors were killed, three were injured, and three F-4 Phantom aircraft parked on the flight deck were damaged.

12 Agosto 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Sovereign breaks down during routine tests in Plymouth Sound, U.K. According to the Royal Navy the breakdown was caused by a "minor mechanical defect." The submarine was towed back to Devonport, U.K.

21 Agosto 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Soviet Echo class nuclear-powered submarine suffers a serious casualty and loses power about 85 miles off the east coast of Okinawa. At least nine crewmembers are believed to have died from a probable fire in the propulsion spaces. A Soviet freighter arrives to evacuate the crew and a tug boat is readied to tow the submarine to Vladivostok escorted by several warships. The next day Japan advises ships to avoid the area, citing possible radiation leaks and refuses to allow the submarine to pass through Japanese territorial waters unless Moscow guarantees there are no nuclear weapons aboard and no danger of radiation leaks. The Soviets initially refuse to guarantee the safety of the reactor and enter Japanese waters despite Japan's warnings. But on 24 August, Moscow acquiesces to Japan's demands concerning safety, and informs Japan there was no radioactive leakage or nuclear weapons on board. Subsequently, Japanese examination of air and water in the area reportedly finds evidence of radioactive contamination. 23 Agosto 1980 - Giappone. Un sottomarino nucleare sovietico prende fuoco al largo del Giappone e trasmette per radio una richiesta di aiuto. Il bilancio dei giapponesi parla di 9 morti e 3 feriti. Restano molti misteri sulla dinamica dell'incidente

31 Agosto 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In late August some cracks in the USS Vulcan's (AR-5) outerhull which allow oil seepage are discovered. These are repaired while the ship is in Norfolk, Virginia, and afterward the ship sails for Norway.

9 Settembre 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Valdez (FF-1096) suffers a material failure to the ship's sole gyro compass following a departure from Antwerp, Belgium. The ship operates on magnetic compass only for the next six weeks, through out exercise "Teamwork 80." This degrades the performance of weapons systems and satellite navigation, and makes refueling at sea more complicated.

15 Settembre 1980 - Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. A B-52H bomber carrying nuclear-armed AGM-69 short range attack missiles caught fire while on the ground during an alert exercise. A strong wind and firefighters managed to keep the intense flames away from the missiles. The fire was caused by a fuel leak and burned intensely, fed by fuel from the Number Three main wing tank. The fire burned for more than three hours and was extinguished only after the fuel flow had ceased. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Director Roger Batzel later testified that if "the wind was blowing down the axis of the airplane, the whole aircraft [including its load of nuclear-armed missiles] would have been engulfed in flames."

19 Settembre 1980 - Damascus, Arkansas, USA. I vapori del combustibile provenienti da un missile balistico intercontinentale Titan II (ICBM "Intercontinental Ballistic Missile") fanno saltare in aria, nella base di lancio del missile, la porta da 740 tonnellate di calcestruzzo e acciaio e catapultare la testata del missile nucleare a circa 185 m. di distanza. L'incidente accade quando un addetto alle riparazioni dell'Air Force lascia cadere una pesante chiave inglese e questa colpisce il missile, causando una crepa nella cisterna di carburante pressurizzato del missile. Il carburante prende fuoco e esplode dopoe 8 ore e mezza , uccidendo una persona e ferendone altre ventuno. Il veicolo di rientro del missile, che conteneva una testata nucleare, fu ritrovato intatto.

30 Settembre 1980 - Iraq. Un caccia F4 iraniano bombarda il centro di ricerca nucleare iracheno di Osirak

20 Ottobre 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Saratoga (CV-60) suffers five minor fires from 20 to 26 October while undergoing a major overhaul at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Pennsylvania. The Navy investigates the possibility of arson.

Dicembre 1980 - Colorado, USA. Un rimorchio del Dipartimento dell'Energia che trasporta plutonio da Richland, Washington, nel New Messico, si capovolge sulla strada ghiacciata dell'Interstatale 25 vicino Fort Collins, Colorado.

1 Dicembre 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In December, the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Dreadnought suffers serious machinery damage -- reportedly cracks in the secondary cooling system -- which necessitate a complete reactor shutdown. This damage and troubles with scheduling a refit lead to a decision to retire the aging submarine.

1 Dicembre 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In December the Royal Navy frigate HMS Amazon strikes a coral reef off Belize in the Caribbean.

3 Dicembre 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: During a test, about 150 gallons of low-level radioactive waterleak from a faulty valve on the USS Hawkbill (SSN-666) undergoing overhaul at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington. Five workers receive low-level radioactive contamination. A Navy spokesman says they received a dose of radiation "less than that typically received by a chest X-ray."

3 Dicembre 1980 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS America (CV-66) and USS Caloosahatchee (AO-98) collide during an underway replenishment maneuver 250 miles east of Charleston, South Carolina, when the boiler loses rudder control. Despite an emergency break away, the America suffers minor damage to a catwalk, a storage compartment, and a flight deck safety net rail. But there are no injuries and both ships continue operations

1981 - Comiso, Italia. Il governo Spadolini accetta l'installazione a Comiso (Sicilia) di una batteria di missili nucleari Cruise come richiesto dal programma di riarmo del presidente americano Reagan.

1981 - Ohio, USA. Una valvola di acqua di raffreddamento viene chiusa intenzionalmente, impedendo il corretto funzionamento del sistema di raffreddamento di emergenza

1981 - Iraq. I jet di Israele attaccano la centrale atomica di OSIRAK, distruggendo gli impianti di arricchimento dell'uranio

1981 - New York, USA: fuel oil filter drains were closed on backup diesel power generators at Nine Mile Point Unit 1, apparently intentionally, preventing their startup

1981 - New York, USA. Un generatore diesel di una centrale nucleare viene intenzionalmente danneggiato, per impedirne il corretto funzionamento

1981 - Ohio: water valve was found shut, apparently intentionally, at Beaver Valley NPS, leaving high-pressure portion of emergency cooling system disabled

1981 - In mare, Gran Bretagna. A number of missile diaphragms compressed onto Polaris missiles. There was no damage to missiles or warheads.

1981 - Buenos Aires, Argentina: incidente da irradiazione An iridium-192 industrial source became detached and lodged in its delivery tube, resulting in radiation burns on the finger tips to two individuals.

1981 - La Hague, Francia. Incendio in un silo nella fabbrica di ritrattamento. Livello 3, scala INES

10 Gennaio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Biddle (CG-34) and USS Raleigh (LPD-1) are slightly damaged when the Biddle strikes the moored Raleigh while approaching a pier in Norfolk, Virginia.

23 Gennaio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Birmingham (SSN-695) suffers a failed sonar dome while operating in the Mediterranean and is ordered into Gibraltar for damage assessment. On 30 January the ship is in Gibraltar for repairs.

27 Gennaio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Guam (LPH-9) suffers a minor fire of suspicious origin in an unoccupied compartment while in Norfolk, Virginia.

28 Gennaio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sylvania (AFS-2) and USS Kalamazoo (AOR-6) collide amidships during underway replenishment in the Virginia Capes area with no serious damage.

20 Febbraio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Downes (FF-1070) is under tow by the USS Narragansett (T-ATF-167) from Diego Garcia to Subic Bay, Philippines, for repairs following casualties to both boilers. On 22 February the Downes is able to bring one boiler back into operation and continues to Subic Bay on its own power in company with the Narragansett.

21 Febbraio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Okinawa (LPH-3) experiences a brief fire during training off San Clemente Island, California, but the ship continuesits scheduled operations.

Marzo 1981 -altre fonti riportano gennaio 1981 - Tsuruga (Giappone). 280 persone vengono contaminate a causa di una fuga di residui radioattivi nella centrale di Tsuruga, in Giappone. Un mese dopo le autorità comunicano che 45 operai sono stati esposti a radioattività nel corso delle operazioni per la riparazione della centrale.

9 Marzo 1981 - Mar della Cina. Il sottomarino nucleare Usa "George Washington" sperona nel Mar della Cina la nave da guerra giapponese "Nisso Maru" e la affonda

14 Marzo 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The naval reserve destroyer USS Cone (DD-866) is temporarily grounded while departing Charleston, South Carolina. After being freed by a tug the Cone returns to Charleston for hull damage assessment.

19 Marzo 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Yellowstone (AD-41) and the USS Robert A. Owens(DD-827) collide off Florida, causing extensive damage but no casualties.

26 Marzo 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Guardfish (SSN-612) touches ground while in the San Pedro Channel on the way to San Diego, California. There were no personnel injuries and an on-board inspection revealed no hullor equipment damage.

2 Aprile 1981 - Saintes, Francia: incidente da irradiazione While a technician was changing the cobalt-60 source in a teletherapy machine, the source fell to the ground. The technician picked up the source, touching it for 11 seconds. The dose to the hands was over 10,000 rad, and both hands had to be amputated. A second operator had to have both hands amputated, and a third had three fingers amputated. Eight other individuals in the room received doses of 1 rad to 100 rad.

3 Aprile 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A fire breaks out in the engine room of the USS Taluga (T-AO-62) while the ship is operating 80 miles west of San Diego, California. Two injured crew members are airlifted to San Diego by helicopter. The fire is extinguished and the Taluga proceeds to port.

4 Aprile 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Workers at Coastal Drydock in New York (formerly Brooklyn Navy Yard) inadvertently cause a fire on the USS Aylwin (FF-1081) while welding. The frigate's Combat Information Center is damaged.

9 Aprile 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS George Washington (SSBN-598) collides with the 2,350-ton Japanese freighter Nissho Maru in the East China Sea about 110 miles south-south west of Sasebo, Japan. As it is surfacing, it runs into the underside of the freighter, damages itsit hull and causes it to sink in approximately 15 minutes, killing two Japanese crewmen (13 others are rescued). The submarine suffers minor damage to a small section of its sail. The accident sparks a political furor in Japan, straining U.S.-Japanese relations a month before a meeting between Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki and President Ronald Reagan. The United States is criticized because: it took over 24 hours to notify Japanese authorities; the submarine and a U.S. P-3 Orion aircraft overhead did not make a rescue attempt; and the submarine was operating so close to Japan, less than 20 miles outside the 12-mile limit. The U.S. Navy initially says the submarine surfaced but could not see any ship in distress due to fog and rain. On 11 April President Reagan and other U.S. officials express regret over the accident, make offers of compensation and reassure the Japanese there is no cause for worry about radioactive contamination, but refuse to say what the submarine was doing so close to Japan or whether it was armed with nuclear missiles. Over the next several months as the controversy continues, the U.S. Navy: accepts responsibility to preclude lengthy litigation; is criticized for its preliminary report which says the submarine and Orion claimed not to have realized the freighter was sinking; and relieves and reprimands the commanding officer and officer of the deck of the submarine. On 31 August the Navy releases a final report which concludes the accident resulted from a highly coincidental set of circumstances, compounded by errors on the part of some members of the submarine crew.

13 Aprile 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS William H. Bates (SSN-680) is reported to run into gillnets near the Hood Canal in Washington state.

27 Aprile 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Manitowoc (LST-1180) and the USS Trenton (LPD-14) begin a five-day visit to Alexandria, Egypt. The USS Jack (SSN-605) also is in port. The Trenton and Jack suffer minor damage when the Jack, moored alongside, surges against the Trenton in a sea swell.

1 Maggio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In May the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Glasgow collides with the Soviet cruiser Admiral Isakov in the Barents Sea. The Glasgow's captain reports the Soviet ship was maneuvering dangerously.

15 Maggio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A hairline crack is discovered in the main cooling system of the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Valiant asit returns to Devonport, U.K., after developing a fault in its cooling system while operating off the Cornish coast. The crack does not affect the operation of the reactor and the vessel returns to Devonport under its own power. The Royal Navy denies claims that contaminated water was discharged into Plymouth Sound, saying "A very small quantity of water leaked outand this was drained off into a lead tank in a barge for treatment." The reactor is cooled down before the leak is plugged.

26 Maggio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Marine EA-6B Prowler aircraft crashes while landing on the USS Nimitz (CVN-68) operating 70 miles off Jacksonville, Florida, killing 14 and injuring 48. The aircraft reportedly applied power as it was landing and then suddenly drifted to the right, running into parked aircraft, causing ammunition to explode, and starting numerous fires that took at least one hour to put out. Three F-14 Tomcats are destroyed and 16 other aircraft are damaged, and, overall, approximately $100 million in damage results. The Nimitz returns to Norfolk, Virginia, for several days of repairs. The crash sparks a five-month debate between Representative Joseph P.Addabo (D-NY) Chairman of the House Defense Appropriations Subcommittee and the Navy over whether drug use on board the carrier may have contributed to the crash.

1 Giugno 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nitro (AE-23) is badly damaged by a fire in the main machinery room while en route to Athens, Greece, 60 miles north east of Souda Bay, Crete. It is taken under tow the next day bythe USS Neosho (T-AO-143) for Souda Bay.

4 Giugno 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Kondor class minesweeper suffered heavy damage when she was in a collision in international waters with a Danish naval oiler in the southern area of the Baltic Sea.

10 Giugno 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Detroit (AOE-4) runs aground on a sandbar near Old Point Comfort, Hampton Roads, Virginia, as the ship is preparing to enter port at Norfolk. There are no injuries or apparent damage. The ship is refloated the next day after off-loading its fuel.

29 Giugno 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dahlgren (DDG-43) suffers a two-hour fire in the radiomen's store room while in the Caribbean. The damage is light and the ship proceeds to Guadeloupe.

10 Luglio 1981 - La Maddalena, Italia. Dopo quasi cinque anni ancora un caso di cranioschisi a La Maddalena. Rimane l'ipotesi della radioattività per la presenza dei sommergibili nucleari statunitensi nelle acque del golfo de La Maddalena

14 Luglio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Coontz (DDG-40) accidentally fires a Harpoon anti-ship missile with a high-explosive warhead during a maintenance test about 70 miles from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The missile impacts and is lost at sea.

19 Luglio 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Marine Corps Reserve CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter crashes and burns while landing aboard the USS Guam (LPH-9) during training operations in the Atlantic 35 miles southeast of Moorehead City, North Carolina, killing four and injuring 11 other Marine and Navy personnel.

29 Luglio 1981 - Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA: intenzionale autoesposizione a fonte industriale radiografica An unemployed radiographer incurred a self-inflicted radiation injury from an iridium-192 industrial radiography source, resulting in death. The individual, Douglas Crofut, had stolen the source in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

6 Agosto 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Wardroom 1 of the USS Ranger (CV-61) catches fire, causing extensive damage while the ship is moored at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California. Reportedly "reconstruction was monumental" and "communication's problems extended into work-ups."

15 Agosto 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire on board the USS Independence (CV-62) while in overhaul at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia, damages the air operations and carrier control approach spaces. There are no injuries.

27 Agosto 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dallas (SSN-700) damages the lower portion of its rudder when it runs aground while approaching the Atlantic Underwater Test and Evaluation Center site at Andros Island, Bahamas. The submarine works itself free after several hours and returns to New London, Connecticut, on the surface for repairs.

1 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: According to raw CIA intelligence reports, in September a Soviet nuclear submarine operating in the Baltic "underwent a series of strong and sudden physical shocks. An emergency was declared and ... crew members were sealed into the compartment in which they were standing duty. The submarine was no longer navigable following the shocks and was taken under tow. It was towed for a total of 36 hours but was actually only moved during darkness." The submarine was towed to Kaliningrad and "the sailors that had been sealed in the compartment were then flown to Riga and hospitalized." The CIA source reports all the sailors exhibited signs of terminal radiation sickness.

6 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A landing A-7 II Corsair aircraft collides with a taxiing F-14 Tomcat fighter on the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) killing one crewman and injuring two others while the carrier is operating in the Indian Ocean. The A-7 is recovered and the F-14 crew ejects safely, but the F-14 rolls overboard.

17 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Marine Corps CH-53C Sea Stallion helicopter crashes while attempting to land on the USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) during Sixth Fleet training exercises in the Mediterranean near Sardinia,Italy, killing all five crewmen.

20 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Conyngham (DDG-17) runs aground momentarily while making a slow approach to the Mauritian coast causing minor damage to the sonar.

20 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Philippine Navy frigate Datu Kalantiaw is forced aground by 127 miles per hour winds from Typhoon Clara while on anchor near Calayan Island, 340 miles north of Manila, with only 18 of 97 crew surviving.

24 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) and the USS Waccamaw (T-AO-109) collide during underway replenishment south of Sardinia, Italy, causing minor damage but no injuries.

25 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: An Israeli missile boat runs aground on a Saudi Arabian reef inthe Gulf of Eilat after its electrical system goes bad, knocking out its navigational equipment. The Saudis permit the Israelis to rescue the boat; 12 days later it is removed.

30 Settembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Pegasus (PHM-1) collides with the USS Newport (LST-1179) while making an approach to connect for towing north of Cuba, causing minor damage.

Ottobre 1981 - Svezia. Un sottomarino nucleare sovietico si arena in una zona militare segreta nelle acque territoriali svedesi

7 Ottobre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Inchon (LPH-12) suffers a boiler explosion while preparing to get underway from Norfolk, Virginia.

13 Ottobre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Waccamaw (T-AO-109) collides with the USS Raleigh (LPD-1) while the USS Detroit (AOE-4) is alongside. The ships are underway in the Mediterranean.

17 Ottobre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Waccamaw (T-AO-109) is struck by an Italian tug in Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, when the tug loses control while making an approach to aid in maneuvering. The boiler is holed but no pollution results.

21 Ottobre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Cook (FF-1083) observes a Soviet Foxtrot class diesel-powered attack submarine under tow while conducting intelligence operations off Socotra Island in the Indian Ocean.

27 Ottobre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Whiskey class diesel-powered attack submarine runs aground 10 kilometers from the Swedish naval base of Karlskrona, 300 miles south of Stockholm. The Swedish government alleges the submarine was engaged in illegal reconnaissance or mine-laying work and there was good reason to believe the vessel is carrying nuclear weapons. The Swedes demand an apology and an explanation. When the submarine captain is questioned he contends bad weather and a faulty compass led to the inadvertent intrusion into Swedish waters. But the Swedish authorities maintain that good navigation was necessary for the vessel to come this far into their waters. On 29 October a Soviet tug is turned back by Swedish warships and another unidentified submarine is spotted within Swedish waters and is pursued by Swedish antisubmarine warfare helicopters until it disappears. On 2 November the submarine is refloated by Swedish tugs to prevent heavy seas from battering the ship. On 5 November the Swedish government announces that the submarine probably has nuclear weapons aboard. Foreign Minister Ullsten says "it must be very embarrassing" to have this information released when the Soviets "have created the impression that they are more in favor than the United States" of arms control. On 6 November the submarine is returned to the Soviets. The same day the Swedish government expresses the view that previous Soviet proposals in regard to the Baltic as a "sea of peace" were no longer credible. Officials said the incident would affect Swedish attitudes toward Nordic nuclear-free-zone proposals from the Soviet Union. It is later reported on 6 May 1982 that the Soviet government had agreed to pay Swedish costs of $212,000 arising from the incident.

2 Novembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: At the Holy Loch naval base in Scotland a Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missile is dropped 13 to 15 feet as it is moved aboard the submarine tender USS Holland (AS-32) after an error by the crane operator. The fall is arrested by a safety device, but critics suggest there was a serious chance that a conventional explosion could have taken place, dispersing radioactive material. This explosion could have occurred because the Poseidon warhead uses an unstable conventional high explosive called LX-09. Moreover, the Navy is upbraided for not immediately reporting the incident or notifying surrounding communities of possible danger. The U.S. Navy refuses to confirm or deny whether there were nuclear weapons on the missile and states "there was no damage done, no injuries occurred; there was no danger to personnel."

3 Dicembre 1981 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An arresting wire breaks during the landing of an A-7 Corsair aircraft on the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) while operating in the Caribbean Sea, killing two men and injuring three. Four aircraft including the A-7 are damaged.

1982 - New Yersey, USA. Alcune valvole vengono chiuse intenzionalmente per impedire la partenza di un generatore

1982 - Francia. Cinque razzi vengono lanciati sulla centrale di Creys-Melville

1982 - Stati Uniti: un disoccupato ruba un contenitore di 192Ir e muore

1982 - France: Five rockets fired into Creys-Malville nuclear facility, causing minor damage.

1982 - In mare (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Damage to some nuclear weapon containers during transfer. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

1982 - Garigliano (Caserta - Italia). Si contano al 1982, 18 incidenti alla centrale di Garigliano, di cui il primo fu ufficialmente denunciato solo nel 1980.

1982 - La Plata, Argentina: incidente radioterapico An operator was injured by radiation from an x-ray therapy unit. The individual looked through a window while changing the x-ray tubes, not realizing the system was on. The operator received a whole-body dose of 12 rad and a dose of 580 rad to the lens of both eyes, resulting in cataracts in both eyes.

1982 - USA. Nella centrale di Giuna, uno dei tubi del sistema refrigerante sì fessura e scarica acqua bollente radioattiva.

1982 USA. Dopo l'incidente di Giuna si scoprono in altre sette centrali oggetti di metallo dimenticati nei condotti. Molti impianti sono così fermati perché ritenuti poco sicuri.

4 Gennaio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy ship collides with an Italian tanker in the Straits of Messina.

10 Gennaio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Mispillion (T-AO-105) and the civilian tanker Texas Trader, under Navy contract, collide during a routine fuel transfer in the Indian Ocean. There are no personnel injuries and no serious damage to either ship.

16 Gennaio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Five U.S. Navy personnel die in a diving accident aboard the USS Grayback (SS-574) off the coast of Subic Bay, Philippines.

1 Febbraio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In early February, the USS Seattle (AOE-3) is hit by a tug boat while getting underway from Craney Island, Norfolk, Virginia, causing extensive damage to equipment on the ship's aft end.

2 Febbraio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Ponce (LPD-15) collides with the USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) during a towing exercise which causes minor damage to the Ponce's port side, mainly to the accommodation ladderand flight deck catwalk. The two ships were en route to Portsmouth, U.K.

18 Febbraio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The South African Navy flagship the frigate President Kreuger collides with the naval supply ship Tafelberg during night maneuvers in rough seas and gale force winds south of the Cape of Good Hope and sinks. Thirteen of her crew are reported missing and 177 sailors are saved.

1 Marzo 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In March both of the USS Inchon's (LPH-12) emergency diesel generators become inoperable during training in the Caribbean. The ship is unable to finish training. A portable emergency diesel generator is attached to the flight deckand the ship is escorted back to Norfolk, Virginia, by the USS Pensacola (LSD-38).

13 Marzo 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fourteen aircraft from the carrier USS Forrestal (CV-59) are diverted to Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, after a boiler failure causes a "partial electrical failure" on the carrier. The ship was on exercises off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

18 Marzo 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Newport (LST-1179) suffers a Bravo Class fire in a main engineering space while anchored at Berbera, Somalia.

22 Marzo 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Jacksonville (SSN-699) collides with the Turkish cargo ship the General Z. Dogan while running on the surface 25 miles east of Cape Charles, Virginia. Damage to the Jacksonville is reported as minor and characterized as "bumpsand scrapes," while bow damage is reported on the General Z.Dogan.

10 Aprile 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The West German built submarine Pisaqua, built for Venezuela, collides in the Danish Straits with a merchant ship as it is completing its sea trials. The ship is towed to Kiel, Germany.

19 Aprile 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Irish fishing boat Sharelga capsizes and sinks in the Irish Sea after being dragged by the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Porpoise which had become entangled in the trawler's nets. The British government initially denies a submarine was in the area, and then admits responsibility two weeks later.

20 Aprile 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Brewton (FF-1086) suffers a casualty to its service diesel generator, curtailing the ship's participation in "Rimpac82" exercises.

20 Aprile 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Seven people are injured in an explosion aboard the USS Garcia (FF-1040) which is being overhauled at General Shipyard in Boston, Massachusetts.

8 Maggio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Chauvenet (T-AGS-29) runs hard aground on Dauisan Reef in the Cagayan Islands in the Sulu Sea while underway from Subic Bay, Philippines, to survey grounds in Indonesian waters. After two-and-one-half weeks of salvage efforts, the ship is refloated by U.S. Navy salvage teams and towed to the Ship Repair Facility in Subic Bay.

15 Maggio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Swedish coastal authorities report a Soviet destroyer or large frigate is on fire in the Baltic Sea, 22 miles off Latvia.

22 Maggio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Fletcher (DD-992) strikes the USS Towers (DDG-9)and the USS Francis Hammond (FF-1067) causing minor damage while attempting to moor alongside the two ships in Subic Bay, Philippines.

11 Giugno 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Seattle (AOE-3) and the USS Aylwin (FF-1081) collide when the Seattle loses steering control while refueling the frigate during transit across the Atlantic to the Mediterranean.

12 Giugno 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Bonefish (SS-582) suffers main engine casualties when all three main engine spaces are flooded while operating on the surface in the Pacific. No material damage on personnel injuries occur.

12 Giugno 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Cleveland (LPD-7) and the USS Ashtabula (AO-51) collide in the Gulf of Thailand during underway replenishment. Damage is minor and there are no injuries.

17 Giugno 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Ten persons are injured when a 1,200-lb. steam valve ruptures aboard the USS Saratoga (CV-60), which is undergoing a Service Life Extension Program overhaul in Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Pennsylvania.

20 Giugno 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A target hulk being towed by the USS Reclaimer (ARS-42) scrapes a Chinese tanker while the vessels are leaving Singapore. There are no injuries and damage is minor.

12 Luglio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Seattle (AOE-3) suffers a "freak explosion" in the after portion of the ship while moored alongside a fuel pier at Porto Torres, Sardinia, Italy. A chemical reaction between fuel vapors and a chemical stored in one of the blast-tornspaces causes the explosion which damages the after steering compartment and Enlisted Dining Facility. The Seattle is able to get underway for Naples less than 12 hours after the general quarters alarm was first sounded.

15 Luglio 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In mid-July the 30-foot yacht Fyfield Five is struck by an underwater object off the Tuskar Rock off Ireland and sinks. The owner Ken Roberts insists he was sunk by a submarine -- reportedly a periscope crashed up through the keel of his boat. The press is initially skeptical, but then a dockyard worker tells the Morning Star newspaper that the Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Opossum was having emergency repairs done to her conning tower in Portsmouth. The Ministry of Defense admits the Opossum was damaged in a collision at sea 400 miles west of Plymouth, U.K., on the day Robert's boat sank, but says this is well to the west of where Robert's vessel went down. The Ministry of Defense is unwilling or unable to provide details, but does not deny reports the Opossum was hit by a Soviet spy trawler.

Agosto 1982 - New Jersey, USA: values were found closed on backup diesel generator at Salem Unit II NPS, apparently intentionally, which would prevent generator start-up

8 Agosto 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Mare di Barents. While on duty in the Barents Sea, there was a release of liquid metal coolant from the reactor of the Soviet Project 705 Alfa-class submarine K-123. The accident was caused by a leak in the steam generator. Approximately two tons of metal alloy leaked into the reactor compartment, irreparably damaging the reactor such that it had to be replaced. It took nine years to repair the submarine.

19 Agosto 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Royal Navy board is set up to investigate damage done to the Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Revenge's gearbox caused by the presence of a small, extraneous piece of metal as the submarine is nearing the end of a two-and-a-half-year major refit at Rosyth, Scotland. The damage delays the submarine's scheduled completion date.

2 Settembre 1982 - Kjeller, Norvegia: autoclavatura A technician was maintaining an industrial irradiator used for sterilizing instruments. He did not realize the 65,000 -curie cobalt- 60 source was exposed and was found ill outside the building after less than 25 minutes exposure. Radiation exposure was not immediately recognized, however, and he was hospitalized for treatment for heart attack. Shortly before he died on 15 September it was recognized he was suffering radiation sickness from a dose later estimated at 2,200 rem.

21 Settembre 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The U.S. shrimp boat Howard M. operating in the Pacific off Washington state snags what may have been a Soviet submarine, according to the U.S. Department of Defense. The skipper of the boat Danny Parker reports he was dragged about a mile and a half until a cable snapped.

28 Settembre 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Sam Houston (SSN-609) spills less than 50 gallons of low-level radioactive water during a test while it is in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, undergoing routine maintenance, according to the Navy. The spill was stopped, the water was contained within the ship, and no radioactivity was released to the environment. The submarine's reactor was not operating. Two individuals were in the area during the spill and one of these individuals received low-level radioactive contamination.

29 Novembre 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Thomas A. Edison (SSN-610) collides with the USS Leftwich (DD-984) in the South China Sea 40 miles east of Subic Bay, Philippines. The Edison was at periscope depth preparing to surface; it damaged its sail and sail planes, but there was no flooding. Both ships remain operational after the accident.

12 Dicembre 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Spartanis caught in the nets of the English trawler Algrie off Land's End, Cornwall, U.K., in the Celtic Sea. As the trawler is dragged forward the fishermen radio to shore, and several minutes later the submarine surfaces with the nets and tackle laying across the vessel. The nets, costing 7-8,000 pounds sterling, are cut free, and the submarine continues on its patrol.

31 Dicembre 1982 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In late 1982 the USS Permit (SSN-594), cruising on the surface, collides with the USS La Jolla (SSN-701), at periscope depth, while they are on sea trials about 30 miles off San Francisco. The Permit recieves a ten-foot-long, three-foot-wide "scrape" in the paint on the keel, while the La Jolla suffers minor rudder damage.

1983 - Cade in oceano un missile sovietico contenente materiale radioattivo

1983 - West Germany: Four West Germans gain forced entry to a Pershing missile site and attempt to destroy a missile with crowbars.

1983 - Germania. Quattro terroristi forzano l'ingresso di un centro nucleare e tentano di distruggere un missile Pershing.

3 Gennaio 1983 - The Soviet nuclear-powered spy satellite Kosmos 1402 burns up over the South Atlantic

3 Gennaio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Arkansas (CGN-41) collides with the Italian merchantman Megara Ilea in the Strait of Messina, and is "slightly damaged on the port side."

19 Gennaio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) has a minor collision with the Canadian Maritime Forces Ship Yukon off the coast of Washington state. There are no personnel injuries or serious damage.

22 Gennaio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The East German passenger ship Volkerfreundschaft collides with a West German submarine north of Rostock, East Germany, in the Baltic Sea with no injuries resulting.

10 Febbraio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In the Atlantic the USS Antrim (FFG-20) suffers a fire in the wardroom and Computer/Radar Electronics spaces after it is struck by a drone during live firing of the Phalanx self-defense close-in-weapon-system Gatling gun. A civilian instructor dies from burns caused by the ignition of residual fuel in the target drone.

25 Febbraio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy mine hunter HMS Brocklesby and the coastal minesweeper HMS Nurton collide about two miles off Portland harbor, U.K., during routine exercises.

10 Marzo 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unknown Royal Navy submarine is involved with an incident with the fishing vessel Targuen.

11 Marzo 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Danish trawler catches a Danish submarine in its nets off Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea.

15 Marzo 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: About 15 miles south of the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, the West German fishing trawler Gertraud catches a Soviet or Polish Whiskey class diesel-powered attack submarine in its nets. The trawler is surrounded by Warsaw Pact warships on maneuvers in the area as the submarine surfaces so its the crew can cut the submarine free. The submarine resubmerges, leaving the trawler with a damaged net.

16 Marzo 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Antrim (FFG-20) collides with the USS Flatley (FFG-21) 160 miles north of Puerto Rico during training exercises. Both received only superficial damage.

1 Aprile 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: In April during an Indian Ocean deployment the USS Dale (CG-19) collides with the Royal Navy frigate HMS Ambascade. The Ambascade is laid up in Bombay during May while work on "new bow material" is carried out.

28 Aprile 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Enterprise (CVN-65) runs aground within sight of the port of San Francisco, California, after eight months at sea; it is stranded for five hours until the tide and tugs pull it free.

1 Giugno 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In June a Soviet Charlie class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine sinks somewhere east of the Soviet naval base of Petropavlosk, near the southern tip of the Kamchatka peninsula in the Pacific. U.S. intelligence reports most orall of the 90-person crew are lost. The cause of the accident is not known, but the lack of radioactive contamination is said to indicate that the accident was probably due to mechanical failure, not a nuclear power plant accident. The submarine is salvaged by the Soviet Navy in early August 1983.

1 Luglio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In July a gunnery computer malfunction causes the USS George Philip (FFG-12) to fire a 3-inch shell toward a Mexican merchant vessel during a drill about 40 miles off San Francisco, California. According to the Navy the round landednine miles behind the merchant ship, but some George Philipcrewmen say it actually landed just one mile behind the ship.

18 Luglio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ranger (CV-61) collides with the USS Wichita (AOR-1) during refueling 100 miles off San Diego, California. The Ranger's flight deck elevator is damaged, but no injuries are reported. The Wichita damages its refueling capability. The port fueling riggings are put out of commission, including the loss of all fuel hoses. Also part of the Wichita's aft superstructure is crushed on the starboardside.

19 Luglio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Texas (CGN-39) is holed above the waterline after hitting a quay while leaving the port of Brisbane, Australia.

26 Luglio 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A West German reconnaissance ship collides with an East German naval vessel.

Agosto 1983 - M8, vicino a Glasgow, Scozia, Gran Bretagna. A RAF nuclear weapon load carrier carrying two warheads for Polaris missiles was involved in a collision with a private car. Minor damage was caused to the load carrier. There was no damage to the warheads.

1 Agosto 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In August the USS Davidson (FF-1045) suffers a Class Alpha fire while in the Pacific.

18 Settembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror suffers a fire while in drydock in Devonport, U.K., for a refit. No injuries are reported.

23 Settembre 1983 - Constituyentes, Argentina: criticità di incidente con uranio in acqua An accident occurred during operation of the RA-2 research reactor. Two fuel elements had been placed outside the graphite reflector surrounding the reactor but had not been removed from the tank. A technician was changing the fuel configuration from the control room while moderating water was in the reactor, a procedural violation. A criticality excursion occurred, exposing the operator to a 3,700-rad dose (2000 rad gamma and 1700 rad neutron), with the upper right side of the body exposed the worst. The operator died 2 days later. Two others in the control room received doses of 35 rad each.

30 Settembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy assault ship HMS Fearless is slightly damaged in collision with a West German tanker.

26 Ottobre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Brixham, U.K., trawler Esther Colleen is badly holed when it rams the Royal Navy frigate HMS Ambuscade in heavy fog off Torbay, Devon, U.K. The frigate suffered minor damage.

26 Ottobre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A seaman is dismissed and jailed for starting a fire aboard the Royal Navy frigate HMS Penelope.

31 Ottobre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS McCloy (FF-1038) is towing a sonar array west of Bermuda when suddenly the cable goes slack. The next day a Soviet Victor III class nuclear-powered attack submarine is sighted motion less on the surface 282 miles west of Bermuda and 470 miles east of Charleston, South Carolina, by a U.S. P-3 Orion patrol aircraft. U.S. Navy officials believe that while the submarine was following the McCloy, the sonar array caught in the submarine's propeller. There is no indication of leaking radiation, according to a Navy spokesman. On 5 November the submarine is taken under tow by a Soviet salvage ship in the direction of the Cuban port of Cienfuegos. Further observation while the submarine is undertow leads the Navy to believe the damage is relatively minor and relates to the submarine's propeller.

Novembre 1983 - Sellafield (Gran Bretagna). Lo scarico di liquidi radioattivi nel Mare d'Irlanda provoca la reazione di cittadini ed ecologisti, che sollecitano la chiusura della centrale nucleare di Sellafield, in Gran Bretagna.

1 Novembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A fire breaks out aboard the USS Ranger (CV-61) while deployed in the North Arabian Sea, killing six and injuring 35. The fire is in one of the four main machinery spaces and reportedly is extinguished within an houral though there is one reflash which is extinguished. The vessel continues operations in the North Arabian Sea.

17 Novembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The Soviet Krivak I class frigate Razyaschy collides with the USS Fife (DD-991) in the North Arabian Sea, causing minor damage to the Fife but no casualties. Reportedly the Razyaschy attempted to approach the USS Ranger (CV-61). When the Fife attempted to head off the Soviet ship, the two ships grazed hulls, leaving two 15-foot scrapes in the Fife's paint. Reports say the Soviet ship earlier narrowly had missed a collision with another U.S. vessel.

22 Novembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) and the USS Wabash (AOR-5) have a minor collision during refueling in Oakland, California.

27 Novembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The lead ship of the Soviet Slava class cruisers returns to the Black Sea after sustaining possible engine damage while on its maiden voyage to the Soviet Northern Fleet. The ship had left the Black Sea on 16 September

6 Dicembre 1983/Febbraio 1984 - Ciudad Juarez, Messico: dispersione di fonte radiografica compromessa A scrap yard in Ciudad Juarez obtained a used medical teletherapy unit containing about 6,000 1-millimeter pellets of cobalt-60, totalling over 400 curies. On 6 December the source container was deliberately ruptured, scattering pellets throughout the yard. A magnetic loader further dispersed the pellets, many of which ended up in scrap metal converted into steel products around 10 December. Products included steel rebar from a Chihuahua plant, table pedestals from Falcon Products Company in Juarez (some of both items were shipped to the USA), products from a foundry in Torreon, and products from a producer in Guadalajara. The contamination was undetected until 16 January 1984, when a truck carrying contaminated rebar took a wrong turn at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in New Mexico, triggering automatic radiation sensors. Later that day five other trucks carrying contaminated steel were stopped at a border crossing at El Paso, Texas. Efforts to collect contaminated steel progressed over the next few weeks, with about 500 to 931 tons estimated to have entered the USA. In late January contaminated steel was traced to a table manufacturer in St. Louis, Missouri, and 2,500 castings were recalled from 40 states and replaced; most tables were in warehouses but some were removed from restaurants. In February Mexican authorities reported 3 or 4 individuals had received doses of 100 to 450 rem. The U.S. DOE assisted Mexico in aerial surveys 20-26 March which identified 21 contaminated areas. One contaminated pickup truck was found in a residential neighborhood with children playing in it. In Sinaloa Mexican authorities demolished 109 houses built with contaminated rebar. One worker subsequently died of bone cancer, with another 4 injured. A total of at least 10 individuals received significant exposures.

10 Dicembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The crew of the Royal Navy patrol boat HMS Vigilant is rescued after the vessel gets into difficulties off Northern Ireland.

19 Dicembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Trident submarine USS Florida (SSBN-728) is slightly damaged when it hits an unidentified object while submerged during sea trials in Long Island Sound. No one is injured and a Navy spokesman says he has no cost estimate on the damage.

31 Dicembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In 1983 hull collision damage was repaired and the sonar dome rubber window was changed on the USS Leftwich (DD-984).

31 Dicembre 1983 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In 1983 extensive temporary sail repairs are accomplished on the USS Thomas A. Edison (SSN-610).

1984 - Ungheria: spegnimento in emergenza di uno dei reattori di Paks

1984 - Stati Uniti. Alcuni pacifisti danneggiano seriamente con un cacciavite l'equipaggiamento di un missile ICBM Minuteman in un silos nucleare dl Missouri

1984 - Mendoza, Argentina: incidente radiografico An operator pushed an iridium-192 source into a camera using a finger, resulting in a dose of 1,800 rad to the finger, causing a radiation burn. The operator received a whole body dose of 11 rad.

9 Gennaio 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Detroit (AOE-4) suffers a Class Bravo fire in the 1A1 Forced Draft Blower while moored at Souda Bay, Crete. Several crew members are treated for smoke inhalation.

10 Gennaio 1984 - Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming, USA. La Warren Air Force Base a Cheyenne, nello stato americano del Wyoming, registra un messaggio che uno dei suoi missili balistici intercontinentali Minuteman III è pronto al lancio, dalla sua base sotterranea, a causa di un malfunzionamento del computer. Per prevenire il possibile lancio, un mezzo corazzato viene sistemato sulla sommità della base sotterranea di lancio

14 Febbraio 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During attempts to move an assault craft to Radio Island, near Moorehead City, North Carolina, the USS Ponce (LPD-15) suffers a major casualty when her sterngate is damaged and eventually lost. The Ponce goes to Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for repairs.

15 Febbraio 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The U.S. Navy's Nuclear Weapons Training Group Atlantic submitsan "OPREP-3 Navy Blue Bent Spear [nuclear weapons incident] as a result of a material failure in a W80trainer [warhead for the](Tomahawk) [sea-launched cruise missile]."

Marzo 1984 - Casablanca, Marocco: fonte radiografica compromessa A 16.3-curie iridium-192 industrial radiography source was lost and taken home by a laborer. The laborer had laid the source on a table in the family bedroom, and it was in the house for possibly a few weeks. Exposure to radiation caused the deaths of 8 family members, including 4 children and their parents within a few days of each other, about 45 days after exposure. Three other people received significant exposures. Diagnosis of radiation exposure was only made 80 days after initial exposure.

1 Marzo 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Kresta II class cruiser suffers a two-hour fire while it is monitoring a NATO exercise in the Mediterranean.

8 Marzo 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unidentified submarine drags the Clogerhead, Ireland, trawler Oriel astern for two miles east of County Louth, Ireland. The skipper cuts the nets to free his boat. An official Irish Ministry of Transport inquiry takes place but its findings are never made public.

12 Marzo 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) is struck during night operations by a surfacing Soviet Victor I nuclear-powered attack submarinein the southern Sea of Japan, approximately 100 miles from mainland Japan, while en route to the Yellow Sea. The Kitty Hawk sustains a minor hole below the waterline in an aircraft fuel tank on the starboard side and continues normal operations. The Soviet vessel is observed dead in the water for awhile with a dent across its aft deck. It is assisted by the Soviet Kara class cruiser Petropavlovsk and later is towed by a Soviet salvage vessel to the Vladivostok naval base.U.S. Navy officers say there was no evidence of nuclear leakage from the submarine. The Kitty Hawk had beentaking part in joint U.S.-Korea "Team Spirit 84" exercises. The submarine had been following the Kitty Hawk carrier group with other surface ships for several days. Navy officials claim the carrier's escort ships deliberately broke contact with the submarine after simulating its destruction 15 times to begin a new phase in the exercise where the Kitty Hawk would use deception techniques to lose the trailing Soviet surface ships. The Soviet submarine apparently lost track of the Kitty Hawk and was surfacing to find it when the collision occurred. 21 Marzo 1984 - Giappone. Collisione tra un sottomarino nucleare sovietico e la portaerei americana "Kitty Hawk" al largo delle coste giapponesi

24 Marzo 1984 - Iran. Caccia iracheni conducono un raid aereo sulla centrale iraniana di Bushehr

29 Marzo 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Danish fishing boat Ane Kathrine is dragged under by the West German diesel submarine Simpson, which was on sea trials in the North Sea prior to delivery to Chile, killing three.

2 Aprile 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Glasgow Herald reports the U.S. Navy at Holy Loch, Scotland admits that the paint on the USS Sam Rayburn (SSBN-635) was mildly radioactive when it returned from patrol in February 1984. The Navy says this is very low-level radioactivity, so low that it could not be detected by a geiger counter. Reports about the radiation had been circulating for a
month, leading to claims that the Sam Rayburn had been in a collision sometime in the fall of 1983 which had caused the ship to leakor become contaminated with radiation. The Navy's statements serve to add to the controversy.

2 Aprile 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: At midday in the South China Sea the Soviet carrier Minsk fires eight signal flares at the USS Harold E. Holt (FF-1074) when the latter passes the Minsk's starboard side at a distance of 300 meters after disregarding a request from the Minsk to stand clear. Three flares strike the Holt but no one is injured. A U.S. Navy official acknowledges equal U.S.blame for the incident.

10 Aprile 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In April the USS Barbour County (LST-1195) runs aground on the Coronado strand in San Diego, California, but the ship is successfully extracted in less than 24 hours.

12 Aprile 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Plymouth collides with the West German frigate Braunschweig in heavy fog while taking part in NATO exercises in the Baltic Sea.

23 Aprile 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: While getting underway from Norfolk, Virginia, the USS Kittiwake (ASR-13) backs down on the USS Bergall (SSN-667), causing damage to the Bergall's sonar dome and the Kittiwake's propeller.

Maggio 1984 - Germania. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). A WE!// nuclear weapon in its container was being moved on a trolley. The container had not been correctly secured and fell about 1 metre from the trolley during transit. The weapon casing suffered superficial damage from a toolbox which was fitted as standard to the inside of the container.

17 Maggio 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A fire breaks out aboard the USS Guitarro (SSN-665) during a training exercise 65 miles north west of San Diego, California, near San Clemente Island. Officials said that the fire originated in the submarine's battery well due to high heat from electrical discharge on one of the cells. A sailor making rounds discovered heat, steam, and a glow emitting from the battery well when he opened a well hatch. The submarine headed for port and the crew had the fire undercontrol but still burning when the submarine arrived.

19 Maggio 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy Antarctic support ship HMS Endurance returns from Antarctica with a hole in its hull.

6 Giugno 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Sumter (LST-1181) undergoes repairs to the starboard propeller shaft until 18 June at the Little Creek Amphibious Base, Virginia. Sections of the pitch control rod and hydraulic control components within the starboard shaftand propeller assembly are repaired.

11 Giugno 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During work-ups off the coast of North Carolina the USS Inchon (LPH-12) develops a leak in the fuel oil transfer system and returns to Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs.

14 Giugno 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Jupiter hits the London Bridge while attempting a U-turn in the Thames River.

15 Giugno 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: While operating in the Indian Ocean, a F-14 Tomcat aircraft from Fighter Squadron 33 crashes on the flight deck of the USS America (CV-66) in a Class Alpha accident causing more than $500,000 in damage but no injuries.

20 Giugno 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Whiskey class diesel-powered attack submarine is trapped for three and a half hours in fishing wire of a Norwegian trawler in international waters in the North Sea. The submarine is freed only after surfacing and being aided by the Norwegian Coast Guard.

11 Agosto 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636) reportedly loses her propeller in the Irish Sea. The submarine proceeds back to Holy Loch, Scotland, using its secondary propulsion system. Facilities at the U.S. base are unavailable, so the submarine is towed to the near by British submarine base at Faslane, Scotland.

11 Agosto 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy large fleet tanker HMS Olwen is hit by a storm 700 miles north east of the Falkland Islands, killing two.

14 Agosto 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unidentified submarine drags the Britishtrawler Joanne C. around the English Channel for three hours at night after becoming entangled in the trawler's nets eight miles off the U.K.'s south west coast. When the boat radioed for help the Coast Guard told it to cut its nets as the Royal Navy did have a submarine in the area. The Ministry of Defense later says the only Royal Navy submarine in the area was 30 miles away and that no U.S. submarines were nearby, leading to speculation the submarine belongs to the Soviet Union or another Warsaw Pact nation. Yet on 15 September the skipper of the Joanne C. receives compensation of more than 2,000 pounds sterling from the Ministry of Defense, something the Ministry earlier said it would do if a Royal Navy ship was found to be at fault.

18 Agosto 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire reportedly breaks out on board a drydock at the Faslane Royal Navy nuclear submarine base in Scotland while the USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636) is in the dock for repairs. A U.K. Ministry of Defense official says the fire was caused by an electrical fault in a capstan motor which ignited a small quantity of canvas a top the motor. He denies the fire threatened the submarine, since it broke out in a sealed compartment some distance from the boat. A spokesman for the U.S. Navy confirms the submarine was not damaged, though he refuses to say whether the ship had nuclear weapons on board.

Settembre 1984 - Unione Sovietica. Prende fuoco un sommergibile nucleare sovietico ma riesce a raggiungere la base

10 Settembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire in the exhaust vent of the USS Ticonderoga (CG-47) injures 13 crew members and forces the vessel to return to its home base of Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs. The cause of the fire is unknown.

18 Settembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Japanese shrimping boat Sumiyoshi Maru catches a submarine in its net in the Sea of Japan. The vessel is pulled backward until the 3-centimeter steel wire holding the net is cut. On 20 September a Soviet Golf II class diesel-powered ballistic missile submarine is sighted on the surface with white smoke coming out of its conning tower in the Sea of Japan, 380 miles west of Tokyo. Reports speculate the smoke comes from a fire started by an electrical overload caused by the snagging of the fishing boat's net. Over the next two days the submarine is attended by several Soviet ships, before proceeding toward Vladivostok under its own power on the 23 September.

18 Settembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Victor I class nuclear-powered attack submarine is badly damaged in a collision with a Soviet tanker in the Strait of Gibraltar. The submarine reportedly was travelling in the "noise shadow" of the tanker while exiting the Mediterranean Sea. Jane's Defense Weekly notes that the alternating layers of cold and warm water in the narrows of the Strait make it likely for a submarine "to encounter sudden thermal gradients which make her porpoise upwards," and this is thought to be the cause of the accident. The collision rips off the twin-hulled submarine's bow section, exposing the sonar and torpedo tube compartments. The submarine proceeds to the Soviet anchorage at Hammament, Tunisia, for emergency repairs, before returning to its homeport on the Kola peninsula in early October.

21 Settembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Jacksonville (SSN-699) collides with a Navy barge off Norfolk, Virginia, while travelling on the surface. The Jacksonville strikes the barge amidships and is reported to have caused minor damage to her bow.

26 Settembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Shasta (AE-33) collides with the USS Cleveland (LPD-7) during a practice replenishment at sea 30 miles west of Long Beach, California. Both ships sustain minor damage. The Shasta is able to continue normal operations.

19 Ottobre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy frigate HMS Glamorgan collides with the German frigate Bremen in a gale.

26 Ottobre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS John A. Moore (FFG-19) collides with the USS Ouellet (FF-1077) near Hawaii during "FleetEx 85-1" exercises in the Pacific, causing minor damage.

29 Ottobre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Roanoke (AOR-7) is grounded just outside the entrance to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, after suffering a steering casualty, but rides free eight hours later and returns to port.

12 Novembre 1984 - Missouri: Four Catholic peace activists of the Silo Pruning Hooks entered Minuteman ICBM site near Higginsville and did over $10,000 worth of damage to equipment with a jack hammer; all were arrested and charged with destruction of federal property

17 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Coral Sea (CV-43) suffers a minor engine room fire during overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia. The fire is extinguished in an hour with three men injured and $6,000 damage to the vessel.

31 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In 1984 the USS Thomaston (LSD-28) has an emergency drydocking to accomplish underwater hull repairs sustained as a result of a grounding.

31 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In 1984 ship repair contractors in Sasebo, Japan, accomplish $288,965 of repair work on the USS Darter (SS-576) during an emergency 45-day drydocking to repair damages following a collision.

31 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In 1984 the USS Sterett (CG-31) has an emergency drydocking to repair the sonar dome rubber window, replace the inflatable shaft boots, repack the rudder posts, and do other various underwater hull work.

31 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : In 1984 the USS Tattnall (DDG-19) suffers a major fire.

31 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In 1984 the USS Beaufort (ATS-2) receives underwater hull, shafting, and controllable pitch propeller repairs for damage sustained as a result of a grounding.

31 Dicembre 1984 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : In 1984 the USS Ranger (CV-61) suffers two major fires.

1985 - Stati Uniti: viene trovata contaminazione da plutonio (femtocurie) in un serbatoio dell'acqua potabile di New York City

1985 - Nikko, Baia di Sagami, Giappone. Dispersione di DU in seguito ad incidente aereo (volo Jal)

1985 - Cina: incidente di acceleratore An accident involving an electron accelerator caused significant exposures to 2 people.

1985 - Cina: incidente radioterapico An accident involving radiotherapy using gold-197 caused injurious internal doses to 2 people, one of whom died as a result.

1985 -Cina: incidente da irradiazione An accident involving cesium-137 resulted in doses of 800 to 1,000 rem to 3 people.

1985 - Odessa, Texas, USA: incidente da irradiazione A radiography source in an unshielded position caused excessive exposure and a radiation burn to an individual's hand.

5 Febbraio 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: The USS Ingersoll (DD-990) suffers a casualty to the port oil distribution box, requiring the ship to leave its battle groupin the Indian Ocean.

10 Febbraio 1985 - Germania Ovest. Un misile americano Pershing 2 prende fuoco a Heilbronn, scagliando dei frammenti roventi del missile fino a 228 m. da uno stock di testate nucleari.

12 Febbraio 1985 - Iran. Caccia iracheni conducono un raid aereo sulla centrale iraniana di Bushehr

4 Marzo 1985 - Iran. Caccia iracheni conducono un raid aereo sulla centrale iraniana di Bushehr

Aprile 1985 - New York, USA: Credible claim emerged that New York City's water reservoirs had been contaminated with plutonium; testing detected femtocurie levels of plutonium in the water

11 Aprile 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Coral Sea (CV-43) collides with the Ecuadorean tanker Napo during air operations 45 miles south west of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. A 30-foot hole in the carrier's bow is punched in, and some radar and communications equipment is damaged. The Coral Sea returns to drydock in Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia. Eleven aircraft airborne at the time of the accident are diverted to Guantanamo Bay. The Napo is holed above the waterline and spills 7,600 barrels of oil before reaching Guantanamo for repairs. A formal investigation later blames the Commanding Officer of the Coral Sea for the incident, saying he "used poor judgment in electing to be absent from the bridge during the entire launch andrecovery cycle ... with a Soviet vessel within 1,500 yards and with other vessels well within" the closest point of approach limits the captain had established.

Giugno 1985 - Arizona, USA: Report of intentional tampering with water valves at Palo Verde NPS

Giugno 1985 - Vicino a Glasgow, Scozia, Gran Bretagna. (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Brake failure on a nuclear weapon load carrier. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

3 Giugno 1985 - Marietta, Georgia, USA: incidente radioterapico A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac-25 radiation therapy accelerator resulted in an overexposure to a patient. A 61-year old woman received a localized dose of 15,000 to 20,000 rads and immediately reported pain. Operators did not recognize the accident until the woman developed severe radiation burns later, eventually requiring removal of one breast and caused permanent impairment.

10 Giugno 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Resolution is struck by the U.S. yacht Proud Mary off Cape Canaveral, Florida, in the early morning. The submarine suffers minor damage, but the yacht has to be towed back to port. The Resolution on its way to test-fire one of her Polaris missiles on the U.S. Navy's Atlantic Test Range after undergoing a major refit in Rosyth naval shipyard, Scotland.

22 Luglio 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A dive team embarks on board the USS Powhatan (T-ATF-166) to debeach the USS Boulder (LST-1190) in Chesapeake Bay.

26 Luglio 1985 - Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: incidente radioterapico A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac-25 radiation therapy accelerator resulted in an overexposure to a patient. A 40-year old woman being treated for cancer received a localized dose of 13,000 to 17,000 rads and quickly reported pain. Operators did not recognize the accident until the woman returned to the clinic with radiation burns on 29 July. The patient died of the original cancer on 3 November 1985.

5 Agosto 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is blown from its berth at Portland, U.K., by 50-mile-per-hour winds. No damage is done and two Navy tugs move the ship back into place.

10 Agosto 1985 - Baia di Chazma, Vladivostok, URSS. Un'esplosione devasta il sottomarino sperimentale (progetto 570) atomico sovietico Shkotovo-22: muoiono dieci membri dell'equipaggio esposti alle radiazioni. Furono misurati più di 100.000 Ci di radioattività. I duemila abitanti della baia non furono mai evacuati. Il sottomarino, con i suoi materiali radioattivi, giace in fondo alla baia, sotto diversi metri di sedimenti An explosion occurred during refueling of the submarine K-431 at Chazhma Bay, Vladivostok. The K-431, completed around 1965 as unit K-31, was a Project 675 (Echo II) class submarine with two pressurized water reactors, each 70 MWt capacity and using 20% enriched uranium as fuel. (Note that some sources confuse this submarine with K-314, a Project 671 or Victor I class submarine launched in 1972 and withdrawn from service after a reactor accident in December 1985.) On 10 August 1985, the submarine was being refueled at the Chazhma Bay naval facility near Vladivostock. The submarine had been refueled and the reactor tank lid was being replaced. The lid was laid incorrectly and had to be lifted again with the control rods attached. A beam was supposed to prevent the lid from being lifted too far, but this beam was positioned incorrectly, and the lid with control rods were lifted too far up. At 10:55 AM the starboard reactor became supercritical, resulting in a criticality excursion of about 5x1018 fissions and a thermal/steam explosion. The explosion expelled the new load of fuel, destroyed the machine enclosures, rupturing the submarine's pressure hull and aft bulkhead, and partially destroyed the fuelling shack, with the shack's roof falling 70 meters away in the water. A fire followed which was extinguished after 4 hours, after which assessment of the radioactive contamination began. Most of the radioactive debris fell within 50-100 meters of the submarine, but a cloud of radioactive gas and particulates blew to the northwest across a 6-km stretch of the Dunai Peninsula, missing the town of Shkotovo-22, 1.5 km from the dock. The contaminated forest area was later surveyed as 2 square km in a swath 3.5 km long and 200-650 meters wide. Estimates initial radioactive release was about 2 MCi of noble gases and 5 MCi of other fission products, but most of this was short-lived isotopes; the estimated release inventory one hour after the accident was about 1000 Ci of non-noble fission products. In part because the reactor did not contain spent fuel, the fraction of biologically active isotopes was far smaller than in the case of the Chernobyl reactor accident. 
Ten naval personnel were killed (8 officers and 2 enlisted men), probably by the explosion itself and not from radiation injuries. Radiation injuries were observed in 49 people, with 10 developing radiation sickness; the latter figure included mostly firefighters, some of whom sustained doses up to 220 rad external and 400 rem to the thyroid gland. Of the 2,000 involved in cleanup operations, 290 were exposed to high levels of radiation compared to normal standards. 
High-level waste gathered during clean-up operations were placed in temporary disposal sites. Due to the rapid decay of most of the reactor products and the cleanup operations, some dockyard facilities were able to resume operations four days later. About two months post-accident the radioactivity in water in the cove was comparable to background levels, and 5-7 months post-accident the radiation levels were considered normal throughout the dock area. The damaged submarine was towed to Pavlovsk Bay and berthed there.

Settembre 1985/6 Gennaio 1986 - Yakima, Washington, USA: incidente radioterapico A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac-25 radiation therapy accelerator resulted in overexposures to patients. A woman who received several treatments from September 1985 to 6 January 1986 developed radiation burns which were not recognized as radiation injuries until another injury occurred in 1987.

1 Settembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In the Pacific, an H-46 helicopter crashes on board the USS Fife (DD-991) and slips off the deck, but is somehow held to the side by the Fife's crew. Nearby vessels provide assistance and no injuries occur.

1 Settembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In September the USS Darter (SS-576) collides with a Bahamanian merchant ship about 10 kilometers off Pusan, South Korea. The U.S. Navy says there were no injuries.

25 Settembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Soviet military training auxiliary ship Khasan collides with the Turkish fast attack craft Meltem in the Bosporus, slicing it in two. There is thick fog at the time of the collision.

15 Ottobre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Estocin (FFG-15) runs aground near Key West, Florida.

24 Ottobre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Swordfish (SSN-579) suffers a propulsion casualty while operating as part of the U.S. Pacific Fleet.

31 Ottobre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet minesweeper collides with a Swedish spy ship in the Baltic Sea.

2 Novembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Enterprise (CVN-65) is grounded on Bishop's Rock shoal about 100 miles west of San Diego, California. Reports say the Enterprise sustains a 60-foot gash in the outer hull and damages one propeller. The aircraft carrier continues planned operations, taking part in the "ReadiEx 86-1" exercise before going into drydock on 27 November.

4 Novembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Caloosahatchee (AO-98) grounds on the Elizabeth River near Norfolk, Virginia, taking two days to refloat.

17 Novembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The CH-46 vertical replenishment helicopter of the USS San Diego (AFS-6) crashes into a parked Marine Corps helicopter on board the USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) during a night replenishment, killing one and injuring four personnel.

25 Novembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS W.S. Sims (FF-1059) and USS Moosbrugger (DD-980) collide at sea in the Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, operating area.

10 Dicembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Lockwood (FF-1064) collides with the Philippine merchant ship Santo Nino while crossing the Uraga Suido outbound of traffic lanes at the entrance to Tokyo Bay, Japan. Damage includes a hole 15-feet wide and 12-feet deep running 25 feet down the starboard side, with three crew injuries. The Santo Nino suffers damage above the waterline.

31 Dicembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In 1985 the USS Forrestal (CV-59) is discovered to have a reduction gear problem unrelated to its Service Life Extension Program overhaul work (which finished 20 May). The defect forced the ship to return to her homeport of Mayport, Florida, with one propeller trailing to undergo repairs later in the year.

31 Dicembre 1985 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Narwhal (SSN-671) drifts for several hours in Palma Bay, Palma Majorca, Spain, after its mooring cable breaks on New Year's Eve.

Metà anni '80 - Scienziati sostengono che i test nucleari in Nevada (circa 240) potrebbero aver provocato negli USA 50.000 casi di cancro alla tiroide, dopo che le mucche da latte e bestiame da allevamento furono contaminati da Iodio radioattivo, passando la radiazione agli uomini attraverso latte e carne. Il governo britannico rivela di aver condotto esperimenti con radiazioni sulla propria popolazione per almeno 40 anni. Similmente come in America, ignari cittadini sono stati alimentati alimentati con cibo contaminato, intriso di isotopi. Anche in Australia centinaia di cittadini sono stati coinvolti in esperimenti radioattivi che dal dopoguerra sono proseguiti fino al 1960. Acuni esperimenti comportavano l'iniezione di ferro radioattivo negli ovini che venivano in seguito uccisi e dati da mangiare a "volontari"; venne anche iniettato iodio radioattivo a 5 donne incinte per studiare il tracciato cardiaco

1986 - Kaifeng City, Cina: incidente da irradiazione Two individuals were accidentally exposed to a cobalt-60 source for about 3 minutes. They received whole body doses of 260 and 350 rads, respectively, and developed acute radiation sickness.

1986 - The U.S. government declassifies 19,000 pages of documents indicating that between 1946 and 1986, the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, released thousands of US gallons (several m³) of radioactive liquids. Of 270,000 people living in the affected area, most received low doses of radiation from 131I.

1986 - Gran Bretagna: incidente radioterapico An operator was exposed to a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source while changing sources, resulting in a 1,500-rad dose to one hand. Reddening and blistering of the skin developed two weeks later.

6 Gennaio 1986 - Oklahoma (USA). Un operaio muore e altri 100 restano contaminati a seguito di un incidente che si sviluppa in una centrale atomica in Oklahoma, negli Stati Uniti.

13 Gennaio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Japanese maritime patrol aircraft spots a Soviet Echo II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine under tow by a Soviet salvage ship about 280 miles north west of Okinawa in the East China Sea, heading northward. The submarine evidently suffered a propulsion casualty.

29 Gennaio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Ingersoll (DD-990) makes a heavy landing against the Canadian tug Provider at Esquimalt, British Columbia. Responsibility is charged to an inexperienced tug operator and to brisk winds. Damage to both vessels is minimal.

10 Febbraio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Willamette (AO-180) collides with the USS Jason(AR-8) 75 miles south west of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, during a formation steaming exercise, killing one and injuring eight. The collision smashes the Willamette's starboard bow from the rail to below the waterline. A large vertical rupture from deck to waterline on the port side of the Jason forces the ship to be towed back to port.

13 Marzo 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636) runs aground in the Irish Sea, suffering external damage to its ballast tanks and rudder. A spokesman for the U.S. Navy says "There was no effect on the propulsion, no injuries and no damage to the Poseidon nuclear missiles." The submarine initially sails to Holy Loch, Scotland, under its own power for emergency repairs. It then leaves Scotland on 25 April and travels submerged to Charleston, South Carolina. The extent of the damage subsequently leads to a decision to decommission the vessel, partly in order to satisfy SALT II limitations.

21 Marzo/11 Aprile 1986 - Tyler, Texas, USA: incidente radioterapico A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac-25 radiation therapy accelerator resulted in overexposures to two patients. One male patient was overexposed on 21 March, immediately experiencing pain from an estimated 16,500 to 25,000 rad localized dose. Various radiation injuries developed over the next few weeks and the patient died 5 months after the accident. The second patient, also male, received an overexposure to the face on 11 April which produced immediate skin burns. The patient eventually went into a coma and died 1 May of radiation injury to the brain and brain stem. An ETCC physicist eventually identified the nature of the software program that caused this and similar accidents with the Therac-25.

22 Marzo 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Secota (YTM-415) loses power and collides with the stern planes of the Trident submarine USS Georgia (SSBN-729) off Midway Island in the Pacific and sinks, just after completing a personnel transfer. Ten crew are rescued, but two drown. The Georgia is undamaged.

23 Marzo 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Midway (CV-41) collides with a South Korean fishing boat in the Yellow Sea, damaging the boat but leaving the carrier unscathed.

4 Aprile 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious suffers an explosion and severe gearbox fire, costing some four million pounds sterling in repairs.

4 Aprile 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS William H. Standley (CG-32) suffers a main space fire in its Number 1 engine room during "Readiex 86-3" exercises, causing minor damage and no injuries. The Standley continues operations.

26 Aprile 1986 - Chernobyl (Ucraina) (scala Ines 7). L'incidente nucleare in assoluto più grave di cui si abbia notizia. Il surriscaldamento provoca la fusione del nucleo del reattore e l'esplosione del vapore radioattivo, che sotto forma di una nube pari a un miliardo di miliardi di Becquerel si disperde nell'aria. Centinaia di migliaia di persone, soprattutto nella vicina Bielorussia, sono costrette a lasciare i territori contaminati. L'intera Europa viene esposta alla nube radioattiva e per milioni di cittadini europei aumenta il rischio di contrarre tumori e leucemia. Non esistono ancora oggi dati definitivi sulle migliaia di vittime ricollegabili alla tragedia. The Chernobyl nuclear power station included four RBMK-1000 reactors at a site 3 km from Prypyat (pop. 45,000) and 15 km from Chernobyl (pop. 12,500). The RBMK-1000 reactor is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled reactor producing 1 MW of power. The design lacks a Western-style containment vessel, instead being based on older Soviet designs optimized for production of plutonium. Unit 4 (housed in the same building as Unit 3) was completed in December 1983 and fully brought on line in March 1984. The early commissioning had left several safety tests undone. In April 1986 Unit 4 was nearly through its first fuel cycle, with the result that a variety of fission products were built up in the core. 
On 25 and 26 April 1986 operators were attempting to perform safety tests. On the morning of 26 April they circumvented safety systems to conduct a test at 1:23 AM. The test resulted in a power excursion; without a rapid ability to reinsert control rods the reactor reached 100 times its design thermal output about 1:23:40 AM. A steam explosion at 1:24 AM lifted the 1000-ton upper reactor cover, allowing all the water in the core to escape. This was followed by a second explosion, possibly a hydrogen explosion fueled by reaction of steam from ruptured pipes with zirconium and/or graphite in the reactor core. The second explosion ruptured the roof of the reactor building and expelled about 25% of the reactor core within and beyond the building. One person above the reactor was killed instantly by the explosions. A second person in the reactor building was severely burned by steam; he was found partly buried by debris and died within a few hours. Burning graphite and hot core material ejected by the explosions started about 30 fires, including some on the combustible tar roof of Unit 3. Many plant workers displayed symptoms of radiation sickness within hours of the explosion. In addition to plant workers, firefighters were also exposed significantly while successfully extinguishing fires started on the roof of Unit 3. Total number of people hospitalized was 108 by 6:00 AM and 132 by the end of the first day. Air flow in the damaged reactor building fed a fire in the graphite in the core. About 12 megacuries of radioactivity was released on the first day. Over the following days, attempts to extinguish the fire by dropping material onto the reactor core through the ruptured roof tended to insulate the core, allowing temperatures and emissions to increase after 31 April. The fire was extinguished on 6 May after about 40 megacuries had been released by the fire (in addition to releases on 26 April). 
Three individuals died of non-radiation effects: the two killed on 26 April and a third who died of a heart attack. Another 28 individuals (6 firefighters and 22 power plant workers) died of acute radiation sickness, and 238 others survived with acute radiation sickness. Of 22 exposed to 600 to 1,600 rad, 20 died of radiation (one additional death may be due to heart attack associated with the accident); two of these deaths were individuals with total body thermal burns. Survival times for these 20 radiation deaths were 10, 14, 14, 14, 15, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 24, 25, 30, 48, 86, and 91 days. Exposures ranging from 400 to 600 rad occurred for 23 individuals, of whom 7 died, all of whom had severe beta burns (covering at least 30% of the body). Survival times for these seven were 16, 18, 21, 23, 32, 34, and 48 days. Exposures of 200 to 400 rad were incurred by 53 individuals, one of whom died 96 days after the accident. Some deaths involved complications of emergency transplants; 13 bone marrow transplants and 6 human embryo liver transplants were performed in the weeks following the accident. Survivors with radiation sickness included about 31 with beta radiation burns. In these cases burns developed one to three weeks after exposure over 1 to 30% or more of the body. A total of about 710 plant workers and emergency workers received doses over 50 rad. Workers who received doses between 25 and 50 rad during response or recovery operations include about 60 workers during the accident, about 2,900 workers during recovery through 1987, and about 16,000 military servicemen. Evacuation of residents under the plume was delayed by the government's unwillingness to publically acknowledge the accident. Throughout Europe many abortions of normal pregnacies were obtained out of fears of radiation from Chernobyl; studies suggest about 100 excess abortions in Italy and 400 excess abortions in Denmark in the months following the accident. Over the following years the principal observed chronic affect has been a significant increase in childhood thyroid cancer, affecting 700-1400 children with 10 deaths reported; these figures are far above background rates, whereas other cancers are not significantly different than background levels.

29 Aprile 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Atlanta (SSN-712) runs aground in the Strait of Gibraltar, damaging sonar gear and puncturing a ballast tank in the bow section. Navy officials stress that no radiation leaked from the nuclear reactor and no crewmembers were injured. The vessel limps to Gibraltar for repairs, with water entering through holes in the ballast tank.

4 Maggio 1986 - Hamm-Uentrop, Germania: un esperimento in un impianto da 300 megawatt THRT-300 PBMR (reattore a letto di sfere) nella Germania Ovest causa la fuoriuscita di materiale radioattivo dopo che uno dei letti di sfere viene immesso nel condotto utilizzato per portare carburante al reattore. Il tentativo di rimuovere l'ostruzione creatasi danneggia il condotto e causa il rilascio di radionuclidi. Radiazioni sono misurate per circa due chilometri intorno al reattore.

14 Maggio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Soviet Navy logistic support ship Berezina collides with the Soviet ship Capitan Soroka while proceeding into the Mediterranean near Istanbul, Turkey. The Berezina receives abreached hull to the waterline on the port side.

2 Luglio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Roanoke (AOR-7) collides with the Liberian oil tanker Mint Prosperity while steaming into Long Beach, California, in low visibility. The Roanoke sustains only minor damage to its bow and enters Naval Station Long Beach under its own power.

29 Luglio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : A inquiry begins into a recent boiler fire aboard the Royal Navy frigate HMS Plymouth which killed one.

30 Luglio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A U.S. Navy Sidewinder air-to-air missile hits the 30,000-ton tanker Western Sun carrying 26,000 barrels of oil 60 miles east of Norfolk, Virginia, leaving a reported two-to-three foot gash in the ship's superstructure. One report says the impact started several small fires. The Navy states that it was an inert missile used by an F-14 Tomcat fighterin an exercise within a designated warning area, and that a notice to ships of the exercise had been senton 24 July.

31 Luglio 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In late July the USS Guitarro (SSN-665) reportedly suffers a minor mishap involving a shipboard valve while at sea. In response to inquiries the Navy says no serious equipment or safety problems occurred aboard the Guitarro.

13 Agosto 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Inchon (LPH-12) suffers a casualty to the ship's evaporators while underway for Moorehead City, North Carolina, causing the ship to return to Norfolk, Virginia, for two days of repairs.

16 Agosto 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A freak wave crashes over the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) injuring one man and sweeping seven others into the Pacific Ocean. They were quickly rescued.

9 Settembre 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter crashes into a CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter on the flight deck of the USS Saipan (LHA-2) while operating off northern Norway during "Northern Wedding" exercises. The Sea Knight flips into the water, killing nine.

22 Settembre 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Yellowstone (AD-41) collides with the USS Truckee (T-AO-147) during underway replenishment off Virginia. The Truckee has minor superstructure damage, while the Yellowstone sustains a two-foot gash in the hull on the portside.

30 Settembre 1986 - Il caso Vanunu. A roma viene arrestato dai servizi segreti israeliani, a Roma, il tecnico nucleare Mordechai Vanunu. Vanunu aveva lavorato, dall'agosto 1977 al novembre 1985, nell'impianto nucleare di Dimona nel deserto del Negev, nel sud di Israele, ufficialmente una centrale nucleare di ricerca fornita a Israele dalla Francia alla fine degli anni '50. Dopo una lunga crisi di coscienza ed una fase di crescente impegno politico pacifista negli anni dell'invasione israeliana del Libano, Vanunu lascio' il suo impiego ed intraprese un lungo viaggio all'estero (in Australia e negli USA). Nel settembre del 1986, egli decise di rivelare al "Sunday Times" di Londra tutte le informazioni in suo possesso sull'impianto di Dimona, comprese una sessantina di fotografie che aveva ripreso clandestinamente al suo interno. Sottoposte dal giornale all'esame di alcuni esperti autorevoli (Frank Barnaby e Theodor Taylor, entrambi in passato impegnati nella ricerca e sviluppo di armi nucleari britanniche ed americane), tali informazioni rivelarono che a Dimona, sotto il reattore, un grande edificio sotterraneo a sei piani conteneva tutti gli impianti necessari per "riprocessare" il materiale fissile, separare e purificare il plutonio e costruire ordigni nucleari. Secondo Vanunu, la produzione di plutonio sarebbe stata di circa 40 kg all'anno, parecchie volte superiore a quanto si supponeva in precedenza e sufficiente (secondo l'analisi condotta da Taylor sulle foto di componenti nucleari riprese dal tecnico) per produrre circa otto bombe l'anno. Israele avrebe posseduto cosi' un arsenale dell'ordine di 200 testate, una cifra significativamente piu' alta delle stime (50-100 testate) basate sulla potenza presunta del reattore di Dimona. Vanunu dichiaro' inoltre che Israele produceva bombe a fusione, portando indizi convincenti sulla produzione a Dimona di componenti di deuteruro di litio, un materiale tipico degli ordigni a fusione (si trattava probabilmente di bombe del tipo "boosted", in cui deuterio e trizio vengono posti al centro di una sfera di plutonio, aumentando cosi' la potenza dell'esplosione fino ad alcune centinaia di kton).
Nel marzo del 1988 vi fu il processo: un processo a porte chiuse, da cui fu escluso qualsiasi osservatore esterno, e durante il quale allo stesso Vanunu fu fisicamente impedito di parlare su argomenti "proibiti", che si concluse rapidamente con una condanna a 18 anni di reclusione per spionaggio aggravato e tradimento in tempo di guerra. Due anni dopo, la condanna fu confermata in appello

3/6 Ottobre 1986 - Oceano Atlantico. In seguito ad un incendio il sottomarino K-219, classe OTAN Yankee, affonda nell'Atlantico con 34 testate nucleari a bordo a 644 km ad est delle Bermude. L'equipaggio, prima dell'affondamento del 6 Ottobre, riesce ad evitare la fusione del nocciolo che, in caso contrario, avrebbe potuto contaminare la costa Est degli Stati Uniti e del Canada. Il relitto a tutt'oggi contiene ancora il reattore nucleare.

3 Ottobre 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet Yankee I class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine suffers an explosion and fire in one of its missile tubes 480 miles east of Bermuda, killing at least three. General Secretary Gorbachev sends President Reagan a private communication regarding the accident in advance of the public announcement on 4 October, assuring him that there was no danger of nuclear explosion, radioactive contamination, or accidental launching of nuclear missiles. U.S. for cessample the air and water around the submarine and detect no radioactivity. The submarine sinks under tow on 6 October in 18,000f eet of water about 600 miles north east of Bermuda. U.S. sources said that the explosion probably originated in the liquid fuel of one of the missiles.

26 Ottobre 1986 - Un marinaio della portaerei nucleare "US Oriskany", preso dal panico per l'accensione spontanea di un razzo illumi nante, lo getta in un loculo che ne contiene altri 650. Il conse guente incendio, che causa la morte di 44 persone, distrugge sei aerei e si propaga nel bunker degli ordigni nucleari.

31 Ottobre 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In late October the USS Augusta (SSN-710) is damaged in an under sea collision while on a routine training patrol in the Atlantic. No crew members are injured and the submarine returns to Groton, Connecticut, for $2.7 million worth of repairs byyear's end. Reportedly, according to unnamed U.S. Defense Department sources, it is unclear whether the submarine struck the ocean floor or an underwater object, but there was no risk of the submarine sinking or danger to the nuclear reactor. A Defense Department spokesman refuses to comment on a CBS news report that the submarine "very possibly" collided with a Soviet submarine.

3 Novembre 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Towers (DDG-9) hits the wharf in the Port of Cairnsin northern Queensland, Australia, damaging the wharf.

31 Dicembre 1986 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: During Fiscal Year 1986 the USS William V. Pratt (DDG-44) runs aground while going from Naval Station Charleston, South Carolina, to Naval Weapons Station Charleston, South Carolina, causing $1.3 million damage to her sonar domes.

1987 - Zhengzhou City, Cina: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at an irradiation facility using a cobalt-60 source. An individual accidentally entered the irradiation room for 10 to 15 seconds, acquiring a whole-body dose of 135 rad in the process. The person suffered anorexia and nausea four hours later and developed radiation sickness with slow recovery.

1987 - USA. Una bomba di eco-teroristi esplode nel parcheggio dei Sandia National Laboratories

Gennaio 1987 - Gran Bretagna. Un camion blindato, carico di testate nucleari, finisce in una scarpata. A RAF nuclear weapon load carrier carrying two WE177 nuclear weapons, seeking to avoid a stationary private vehicle, left the road after skidding on ice and rolled on to its' side. A second carrier, which was also carrying two weapons, skidded on the road and came to rest partly off the road. The containerised weapons were not damaged. Minor damage was caused to the first load carrier.

1 Gennaio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: Sometime in the first half of January the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Splendid loses its towed array sonar system during a close encounter with a Soviet submarine in the Barents Sea off Murmansk. Reportedly the submarine was a Soviet Typhoon class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine. It is unclear whether the Soviet submarine severed the Splendid's tow-line accidentally or deliberately in an effort to obtain the sensitive technology. The submarine returns to Devonport, U.K., on 31 January.

13 Gennaio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Berkeley (DDG-15) suffers a casualty to the forward sonar dome pressurization system, forcing the ship to reduce speed to 10 knots in heavy seas, and necessitating an unexpected stop in Guam to as certain the level of damage and make
temporary repairs.

14 Gennaio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS William H. Standley (CG-32) sustains minor damage when several ammunition barges which had been secured along side begin to break loose and pound the sides of the ship in heavy winds and high seas while the ship is anchored in San Francisco Bay, California. The barges are promptly secured, preventing significant damage or their becoming a drift
in a crowded waterway.

17 Gennaio 1987 - Yakima, Washington, USA: incidente radioterapico A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac-25 radiation therapy accelerator resulted in overexposures to patients. A male patient was overexposed (estimated dose 8000-10000 rads localized), immediately reporting pain and developing skin burns later that day. The patient, although previously suffering from terminal cancer, died in April of complications related to the overexposure.

22 Gennaio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Ogden (LPD-5) suffers a Class Charlie fire.

18 Febbraio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Irish trawler Summer Morn is dragged backward for 10 to 20 miles for two and one half hours by a U.S. nuclear-powered submarine before it cuts its nets to free the submarine about 14 miles northwest of the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. The trawler hauls in a submarine communications buoy stuck in its nets. The U.S. Defense Department confirms the submarine was American, but declines to say which submarine it was.

7 Aprile 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two sailors are swept from the deck of the USS Ulysses S. Grant (SSBN-631) in rough seas three miles outside of the Portsmouth, New Hampshire, harbor; one is rescued but is pronounced dead and the other is lost at sea.

21 Aprile 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Richard L. Page (FFG-5) collides with and sinks the disabled fishing vessel Chickadee, which was under tow by another fishing boat, during a high-speed run in heavy fog off Virginia. The incident leads to calls for more drug testing of sailors, though no use on the Richard L. Page is ever uncovered.

25 Aprile 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Daniel Boone (SSBN-629) goes aground in the St. James River at Newport News, Virginia, during sea trials following a $115 million dollar overhaul. The grounding delays the ship's return to service.

29 Aprile 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS La Moure County (LST-1194) collides with the USS Hermitage (LSD-34) about 300 miles off the Georgia coast while the ships are practicing a resupply exercise. The Hermitage sustains a five-foot hole in its bow stem above the waterline while the LaMoure County sustains superficial damage to its left side. The commanding officer of the La Moure
County is relieved pending an investigation of the accident.

27 Maggio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) : The USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) suffers casualties to both boilers' super heater tubes.

3 Giugno 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Patterson (FF-1061) returns to sea after suffering several small fires from efforts to restart a faulty generator while the ship is conducting drills in the Caribbean. The ship was towed to the Roosevelt Roads naval station, Puerto Rico, for one day of repairs. There were no injuries and no damage to the ship.

15 Giugno 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The West German supply vessel Neckar is struck by 46 mm anti-missile and anti-ship gun shells reportedly fired from a Polish vessel while observing a Warsaw Pact exercise in the Bay of Gdansk, about 375 miles east of Kiel. Fourshells strike the Neckar's starboard side and one lodges near its rear engine room. The ship springs a leak and fire breaksout, but damage is only minor. A West German Defense Ministry spokesman says "there are indications pointing to technical or human failure... There is no reason to think it was done deliberately."

25 Giugno 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Australian Navy ship Parramatta hits the wharf at the Port of Cairns, northern Queensland, Australia, damaging thewharf.

30 Giugno 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In late June or early July, the Trident submarine USS Nevada(SSBN-733) suffers a breakdown while conducting routine operations following the improper installation of a power transmission gear during a recent February to April maintenance stop at the Newport News shipyard, Virginia. The damage is estimated at several million dollars, and causes the Nevada to cancel a special call at its new home port of Bangor, Washington. In response to queries the Navy says
"The safety of the ship and crew was never an issue and the ship is continuing its operations."

Luglio/Settembre 1987 - Koko, Nigeria: esposizione radiologica ad un basso livello di scorie A foreign company dumped chemical wastes at the Koko port in Nigeria, some of which contained radioactive materials. Examination showed 26 workers who handled the wastes suffered chemical injuries along with slight injuries attributable to radiation exposure.

27 Luglio 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: U.S. Navy planes conducting bombing practice at night near Okinawa hit the Malaysain freighter Pomex Saga, injuring one.

15 Agosto 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Royal Australian Navy convenes a board of inquiry to discover why the diesel submarine Otama submerged during exercises off New South Wales, Australia, while two submariners were working outside the pressure hull. Both men were killed.

26 Agosto 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror suffers a fire while at Devonport, U.K., for a four-month overhaul, damaging its engine room. The British Navy stresses that the fire was far from the submarine's nuclear reactors.

12/29 Settembre 1987 - Goiania, Goias, Brasile: dispersione accidentale di fonte radiografica compromessa con dispersione di polvere di cesio 137 in un'ampia area urbana con gravi conseguenze per i residenti. un apparecchio di radioterapia, abbandonato in un vechhio ospedale, viene recuperato da robivecchi per la vendita a peso. Il Cesio 137, prodotto attivo dell'apparecchio, si disperde. La gente vi gioca, attirata dal colore blu che emette. 122.800 persone vengono sottoposte a controllo, almeno 4 persone muoiono entro 75 giorni dal ritrovamento più un bambino di 6 anni contaminato con 5,2 mCi, 249 presentano importanti contaminazioni, 120 vengono irradiate, 129 irradiate e contaminate, 49 vengono ospedalizzate (di cui 21 in reparti di cure intensive), 28 casi di ustione, 14 trapianti di midollo e 600 persone, nel 2003, sono ancora sotto sorveglianza medica (livello 5, scala INES) A radiotherapy unit had been abandoned in a clinic which was being demolished. The unit had a source consisted of 1,375 curies of cesium-137 in the form of cesium chloride salt, sealed within two nested stainless steel containers to form a 5-cm diameter capsule. Two individuals, R.A. and W.P., dismantled the unit and extracted the source, taking it to the home of R.A. Both began vomiting on 13 September; W.P. sought medical treatment on 15 September and was advised to stay home. R.A. opened the source outside his home on 18 September. The unit material was sold to a junkyard owned by D.F., who noticed a blue glow from the source container that night; he and his wife M.F. examined the material closely, also inviting a number of people to view the capsule. On 21 September the source material was removed and distributed among several people, some of whom spread it on their skin. Also that day M.F. became ill and was cared for by her mother M.A., who took contamination to her home on leaving on 23 September. Around 23 September junkyard employees I.S. and A.S. were exposed while further dismantling parts of the unit. D.F.'s brother I.F. took some source material home on 24 September and set it on a table during a meal; several family members, including his 6-year-old daughter L.F., handled the material while eating. On 25 September D.F. sold some unit components to a second junkyard. 
With many people ill by 28 September, M.F., assisted by G.S., took the material along with some components recovered from the second junkyard and transported it on a bus to a hospital where she placed it on the desk of Dr. P.M. and stated it was "killing her family." Doctors initially suspected a tropical disease, but one suspected radiation injury. The morning of 29 September a medical physicist, W. F., was contacted; his arrival was delayed because he doubted the readings of his first radiation monitor, but arrived in time to prevent the fire department from throwing the source into a river. The afternoon of 29 September the authorities were alerted and began response, including identification of contaminated areas and treatment of injured people in facilities set up in the city's Olympic stadium. About 112,800 people were examined at the stadium of whom 129 were found to be contaminated; 20 were hospitalized. 
By 3 October some injured people had been sent to Rio de Janeiro for treatment, while others were treated in a special wing of the Goiania General Hospital. Four people died in the acute phase: M.F. and L. F. died 23 October, with respective doses of 570 and 600 rad, respectively; I.S. died 27 October (dose 450 rad); A.S. died 28 October (dose 530 rad). A fifth person, D. F. (dose 700 rad) was hospitalized in May 1994 and subsequently died of liver failure related to his radiation injury. Others exposed included M.A. (430 rad), G.S. (300 rad), and Dr. P.M. (130 rad). W.P. suffered radiation injury to his hand, and R.A. and W.P. both suffered radiation sickness. In addition to the five who died, 23 suffered localized radiation burns, several requiring amputation of fingers. The 23 injured survivors included 9 showing bone marrow depression of whom 3 displayed acute radiation sickness. During hospitalization many patients suffered depression and other emotional problems.

21 Settembre 1987 - Sardegna, Italia. Affonda, nei pressi di Capo Spartivento, la nave RIGEL sospettata di trasportare scorie di uranio.

1 Ottobre 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Renown suffers a leak of reactor coolant during tests in the reactor compartment while at the Rosyth naval base, Scotland, for a refit. The Navy says it was a minor incident, "without any radiation hazard."

9 Novembre 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Irish County Down trawler Angary is pulled along for a few seconds until its tackle snaps off at deck level, breaking as teel chain tested at 32 tons of stress, and disappears without a trace about 17 miles north of the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. The fishermen suspect a submarine is responsible, but the U.K. Ministry of Defense says no British submarine was operating in the vicinity.

17 Novembre 1987 - Iran. Caccia iracheni conducono un raid aereo sulla centrale iraniana di Bushehr

28 Novembre 1987 - California, USA: Bomb exploded at 1:30 A.M. in parking lot of Sandia National Laboratories (next to LLNL); 32 hours later a caller claimed responsibility for the Nuclear Liberation Front, although link was unconfirmed.

Dicembre 1987 - Coulport, Gran Bretagna (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Human error on the part of a crane driver following the devolepment of a defect on a crane led to a missile colliding with trailer supports. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

1 Dicembre 1987 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In December the West German Navy destroyer Moelders suffers a major fire while in the English Channel, returning from the Mediterranean. The fire originates in the galley and produces heavy, poisonous smoke which spreads through vents and cable conduits to a number of decks and compartments. It burns for several hours before being brought under control with the assistance of the frigate Niedersachsen which then tows the ship to its homeport of Wilhelmshaven.

17 Dicembre 1987 - Biblis, Germania. Incidente a livello 2 della scala INES. Rivelato solo un anno dopo in un articolo della rivista specializzata americana, Nucleonic Weeks

Dopo il 1987 - Pennsylvania: Mentally ill man drives his station wagon through the fence at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and wanders on foot for a period of time before being captured

1988 - In extremis un missile sovietico contenente materiale radioattivo viene spostato su un'orbita più elevata per non correre il rischio di cadere sulla terra

1988 - Zhao Xian, Cina: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at an irradiation facility which used a cobalt-60 source. An individual accidentally entered the irradiation room for about 40 seconds, resulting in a whole body dose of about 520 rad. The individual suffered acute radiation sickness, recovered, and was still alive three years later.

1988 - Exeter, Gran Bretagna: incidente radioterapico Due to a calibration error with a radiotherapy unit, 205 patients received significant overdoses.

1988 - Olanda: infiltrazione in uno dei reattori della stazione nucleare di Dodewaard

1988 - Spagna: problema tecnico nello stabilimento di Almaraz

1988 - Spagna: incendio nella stazione di Valdellos

26 Gennaio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Resolution suffers an electrical malfunction while docked in Faslane, Scotland. The Observer newspaper claims that the malfunction shuts down the primary coolant pumps, almost leading to a core meltdown. And, that a crew member who was exposed to radiation had to be scrubbed down for 24 hours. The Ministry of Defense denies these stories, saying the submarine suffered a "minor electrical malfunction;" those that said the submarine's reactor could have melted down didn't know what they " are talking about;" and there had been "absolutely no danger to the crew or the general public."

12 Febbraio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Yorktown (CG-48) and USS Caron (DD-970) are bumped by a Soviet destroyer and frigate, respectively, nine miles off the coast of the Crimean Peninsula in the Black Sea. The action came after the two U.S. ships entered the Soviet's 12-mile territorial water limit.

6 Febbraio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A West German diesel submarine collides with a Norwegian oil platform in the North Sea while taking part in an antisubmarine warfare exercise. The submarine collided with the anchor chain of the oil rig Oseberg B, and while trying get loose struck the rig at 30 meters. The submarine manages to surface in about an hour and proceeds to Bergen, Norway, for inspection and repair.

24 Aprile 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bonefish (SS-582) suffers explosions and fire in its battery compartment during operations with the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and the USS Carr (FFG-52) in the Caribbean, killing three. Submarine experts say that the most likely cause was the accumulation of hydrogen gas while the batteries were being recharged, which probably was ignited by a
spark.

29 Aprile 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Sam Houston (SSN-609) runs aground in Carr Inlet off the south east tip of Fox Island in Puget Sound, Washington, while operating in shallow water to determine how quiet the vessel is in water. The submarine is freed the next day
by four tugs and the USS Florikan (ASR-9) while the submarine's 142-man crew remains aboard. The submarine suffers minor damage to exterior hull equipment.

17 Maggio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror suffers a fire while docked in Gibraltar. The flames are quickly put out and do not affect the nuclear reactor.

1 Giugno 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In the first week of June the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror is accidentally hit by an unarmed training torpedo dropped by an antisubmarine warfare helicopter during exercises off the west coast of Scotland. The deck plating of the submarine is bent on impact and the submarine proceeds to the Faslane submarine base, Scotland, for repairs.

18 Giugno 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In mid-June the trawler Strantail has its nets torn to shreds by a submarine 18 miles north of Tory Island, Ireland. The submarine which bore no identification markings surfaced near the trawler and cleared itself of the remnants of the nets.

2 Luglio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Courageous collides with and sinks the privately charted yacht Dalriada at night in the North Channel of the Irish Sea. The four persons on board the yacht are rescued by the Royal Navy frigate HMS Battleaxe 35 minutes later.

16 Luglio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The 78-foot racing yacht Drum collides with the partially surfaced Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Otus in the middle of the night as it makes its way around the Mull of Kintyre off the west coast of Scotland. The Drum suffers a serious gash on the port side, but is able to make it to Crinan, Scotland, at reduced speed. The Otus comes on the radio 20 minutes after the incident offering assistance.

17 Luglio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A French navy Super Etendard fighter crashes into the French aircraft carrier Clemenceau during a night landing off of Djibouti, killing the pilot.

23 Luglio 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Japanese Defense Force diesel submarine Nadashio collides with the Japanese sport fishing boat Fuji Maru in Tokyo Bay, sinking the boat, killing 30 and causing a political furor over the submarine's lack of efforts to save drowning seamen. 23 Luglio 1988 - Giappone. Il sottomarino nucleare giapponese "Nadashio" entra in collisione con un peschereccio che affonda: trenta morti

Agosto 1988 - Al largo di Hong Kong (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Minor collision of a non-UK vessel which a moored UK vessel which was carrying nuclear weapons. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

2 Agosto 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Constellation (CV-64) suffers an engine room fire which forces the carrier to cancel scheduled operations and return to port in San Diego, California. The fire, believed caused by a fuel oil leak, begins with an explosion in one of the ship's four engine rooms around noon and is finally extinguished about nine hours later after several subsequent explosions caused by heat from the initial fire. Twenty sailors suffer burns, bruises, and smoke inhalation.

28 Agosto 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A Japanese freighter collides with a Peruvian navy diesel submarine off Peru, sinking the submarine and killing seven. Agosto 1988 - Pacifico Giapponese. Il sommergibile nucleare peruviano "Pacocha" urta un peschereccio giapponese nel Pacifico e affonda: sette morti

29 Agosto 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) collides with an anchored coal ship in Hampton Roads, Virginia, while entering the harbor to dock at Norfolk Naval Station, when wind and current push the carrier off course. Damage is minor to both ships.

Settembre 1988 - Somerset, Gran Bretagna (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). A road traffic accident involving an unloaded nuclear weapon convoy. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

1 Settembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: In September the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Southhampton collides with the container vessel Torbay 70 kilometers north of the United Arab Emirates, injuring three aboard the destroyer.

3 Settembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Berkeley (DDG-15) strikes the civilian tour boat Coralita while trying to dock in Cairns Harbor, northern Queensland, Australia, causing considerable internal damage to the Coralita.

12 Settembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The Royal Navy frigate HMS Penelope collides with the Canadian naval support ship Preserver while participating in the NATO "Teamwork 88" exercise, suffering considerable damage.

12 Settembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The USS Boulder (LST-1190) runs aground off Norway during the NATO "Teamwork 88" exercise due to bad weather or uncharted underwater obstructions, causing some major scrapes and tears in the bottom of the hull.

15 Settembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : In mid September a Canadian naval ship goes aground off Norway during the NATO "Teamwork 88" exercise due to bad weather or uncharted underwater obstructions.

22 Settembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : An Exocet missile accidentally drops from the Royal Navy fleet auxiliary ship HMS Regent on to a barge as it is being unloaded in Plymouth Sound, U.K., almost hitting two men in the barge.

Ottobre 1988 - Rocky Flats, Colorado, USA. At the nuclear trigger assembly facility at Rocky Flats in Colorado, two employees and a D.O.E. inspector inhale radioactive particles, causing closure of the plant. Several safety violations were cited, including uncalibrated monitors, inadequate fire equipment, and groundwater contaminated with radioactivity.

23 Ottobre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic : The USS Hayler (DD-997) collides with the West German Navy replenishment tanker Rhon while exercising in the North Sea. Both vessels take on water. The Hayler receives a gash on her starboard side and proceeds to Rosyth, Scotland, for emergency repairs.

1 Novembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: In November, according to a Soviet press account, the Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker Rossia almost suffers a nuclear reactor meltdown when cooling fluid is accidentally released while the ship is in Murmansk. Emergency procedures prevent the core from overheating, averting a possible major accident.

5 Novembre 1988 - Mururoa. La Francia realizza nelle acque dell'atollo di Mururoa un'esplosione nucleare di 50 chilotoni. Il giorno successivo, un violento terremoto (7,6 Richter) sconvolge la provincia cinese dello Yunnan, facendo circa 600 vittime.

9 Novembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Towers (DDG-9) narrowly misses a Japanese helicopter patrol boat with a volley of exercise shells, while exercising off the Boso Peninsula south east of Tokyo Bay, resulting in a political incident with the Japanese.

23 Novembre 1988 - La Maddalena, Italia. Un fonogramma della USL n°1 di Sassari annuncia l'allarme nucleare a La Maddalena. La rete di rilevamento locale avrebbe registrato un salto di quattro punti di radioattività. Si appura immediatamente che si tratta di un falso allarme dovuto al sistema di rilevamento andato in "tilt". Il fisico Prof. Ladu dichiara inaffidabile il sistema di sorveglianza e di allarme in servizio nell'arcipelago maddalenino.

26 Novembre 1988 - La Francia realizza nelle acque dell'atollo di Mururoa un'esplosione nucleare di 50 chilotoni. Un terremoto (6 Richter) colpisce il Canada e gli Stati Uniti del Nord-Est il giorno seguente

30 Novembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A 20 mm cannon on an A-7 Corsair aircraft accidentally fires during maintenance setting six other aircraft ablaze aboard the USS Nimitz (CVN-68), operating in the Arabian Sea, killing one. The Nimitz continues operations.

6 Dicembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Ocelot is reported to return to the Clyde, Scotland, with a forward sonar dome ripped open. The Ministry of Defense denies the tearing is caused by a fishing trawl or cable, saying it was done by wave damage.

7 Dicembre 1988 -Circolo polare artico. L'URSS fa detonare una bomba nucleare di potenza stimata fra i 20 ed i 150 chilotoni in una base del circolo polare artico. Il 7 dicembre, l'Armenia è squassata da un terremoto (6,9 Richter) che uccide 60.000 persone e lascia mezzo milione di senzatetto.

11 Dicembre 1988 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A U.S. F/A-18 Hornet aircraft from the USS Constellation (CV-64) accidentally strikes an Indian merchant ship with a unarmed Harpoon missile during training operations about 200 miles north west of Honolulu, Hawaii, killing one. The missile confused a target hulk with the merchant ship which was in the exercise area.

1989 - Mondo: almeno 25 incendi sono scoppiati a bordo di sottomarini nucleari nel mondo

1989 - Finlandia: avaria al sistema di controllo nella stazione di Olkiluoto

1989 - Beijing, Cina -incidente da irradiazione Two individuals were accidentally exposed to a cobalt-60 source for about 4 minutes. They received whole-body doses of 87 and 61 rads, respectively, and suffered mild haemopoietic radiation sickness, from which they both recovered.

1989 - Cina: incidente radiografico An individual was accidentally exposed to an iridium-192 radiography source, resulting in localized exposures of 1,837 rad.

3 Gennaio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Will Rogers (SSBN-659) surfaces under the U.K. fishing vessel New Dawn in the Firth of Clyde off the coast of Scotland. The New Dawn sustains major damage to her hull. No injuries are reported.

17 Gennaio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Norfolk (SSN-714) collides with the USS San Diego (AFS-6) on the surface near the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel near Norfolk, Virginia, as both ships are heading out to sea, causing minor damage and no injuries.

18 Gennaio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Accidental discharge of a fire fighting foam system during routine maintenance aboard the USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) injures six crew members while the ship is operating in the mid-Pacific Ocean during a six month deployment.

22 Gennaio 1989 - Kazakistan. Una esplosione sperimentale (20-150 chilotoni) viene effettuata nel Kazakistan nordorientale; il giorno successivo un terremoto nel Tajikistan sovietico fa più di 200 morti.

25 Gennaio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Spruance (DD-963) runs aground near Andros Island in the Bahamas while fighting heavy winds. No injuries are reported but the ship requires $1.4 million in repairs.

27 Gennaio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Royal Netherlands Navy diesel submarine Zeeleeuw collides with a buoy while departing the Den Helder Naval Base in the Netherlands. The vessel had been involved in sea trials.

30 Gennaio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A sailor aboard the USS Detroit (AOE-4) is scalded to death when steam is accidentally sent into a boiler he was sent to clean. The ship is docked at the Norfolk Naval Station, Virginia.

5 Febbraio 1989 - San Salvador, El Salvador: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred during repairs at an medical sterilizer irradiation facility with a cobalt-60 source. One component of the radiation source fell out of the source rack, leaving it exposed in the irradiation room at a time when radiation monitors were disabled. Several workers entering the room received radiation exposures. One person received an 800 rem dose, causing death, and two others received severe injury from radiation, one receiving 290-370 rem.

Aprile 1989 - Norvegia. Un sottomarino nucleare sovietico prende fuoco al largo della costa settentrionale della Norvegia: nel rogo muoiono 42 persone

4 Aprile 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Danish fishing boat Christin-Michelle is nearly over turned by a submarine ensnared in its trawl. The submarine, which does not offer assistance, is presumed to be a Soviet Whiskey class diesel-powered attack submarine seen opperating south-south east of Bornholm off the coast of Denmark.

7 Aprile 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: A Soviet Mike class nuclear-powered attack submarine sinks in 8,400 feet of water 270 miles north of the Norwegian coast after a fire on board could not be contained. Forty-two crewmembers are killed. Also lost are the submarine's single nuclear reactor and two nuclear-armed torpedoes.

11 Aprile 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two Syrian helicopters mistakenly attack a Soviet naval diving tender being towed by a Soviet tug boat with anti-tank missiles some 37 miles from the Syrian port of Tartus. Seven sailors are injured.

17 Aprile 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The British fishing vessel Laurel is forced to cut her fishing nets after being towed by an unidentified U.S. nuclear-powered submarine for 15 minutes in the Irish Sea off the coast of theI sle of Man.

19 Aprile 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An explosion in the number two gun turret kills 47 sailors aboard the USS Iowa (BB-61) during gunnery practice off the coast of Puerto Rico.

19 Aprile 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Trippe (FF-1075) and the USS Platte (AO-186) collide during fleet exercises in the Atlantic, 500 miles east of Jacksonville, Florida. One minor injury is reported and the Platte sustains minor damages.

1 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A wave washes three sailors from the deck of the USS Barbel (SS-580) as it conducts surface operations off the coast of the Japanese island of Kyushu. Two of the sailors drown and the third is rescued.

1 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In May, a broken valve causes the USS Houston (SSN-713) to plunge nose down.

6 Maggio 1989 - Greenpeace e l'Università di Bologna presentano un dossier che documenta 1.276 incidenti a sommergibili e navi militari. I dati, attinti direttamente dalla documentazione del Congresso Usa. riferita al periodo compreso tra il 10 aprile 1963 e il 30 ottobre 1986, rilevano gli incidenti gravi a sottomarini nucleari: 7 sovietici, 7 statunitensi, 4 francesi, 3 britannici. In 5 casi l'incidente si è concluso con l'affondamento. Negli altri casi si sono
verificati incendi, esplosioni e inquinamento radioattivo dei mari. Dall'inchiesta risultano 50 atomiche finite in fondo al mare. Costituisce un serio allarme per le istituzioni democratiche e per la popolazione constatare che nessuno di questi incidenti è statorivelato al Parlamento ed alla pubblica opinione dal Governo o dalle autorità militari.

9 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Fire in the engine room of the USS White Plains (AFS-4) kills six sailors and injures five others while the ship is opperating about 100 miles east of Hong Kong in the South China Sea. The ship is towed to Subic Bay, Philippines, for repairs.

13 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire in the pump room of the USS America (CV-66) kills two sailors and causes minor damage while the ship is in the mid-Atlantic en route to the Mediterranean for a six-month deployment.

17 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Helena (SSN-725) is towed nearly 1,000 miles from Midway Island to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, after its reduction gear fails, rendering its propeller inoperable.

19 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Helicopters from the USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) and the USS Duluth (LPD-6) are used to rescue fifty-two personnel thrown into the water when bad weather conditions cause their boats to overturn during the amphibious exercise "Valiant Usher '89" near Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia. One U.S. Marine is drowned and two others are injured.

23 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Gurnard (SSN-662) runs aground off the California coast near San Diego while submerged during a routine training mission. No injuries or damages are reported.

24 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The French Navy diesel submarine La Praya is caught in the nets of a Norwegian fishing vessel in the North Sea off the Shetland Islands. The trawler severs its nets to free the submarine.

25 Maggio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: Fire aboard the USS Blueback (SS-581) forces it to surface during training exercises off the coast of southern California. No injuries are reported and damage appears slight.

1 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The Canadian naval destroyer Kootenay collides with the Danish freighter Nordpol while steaming with its radar off during a Canadian/U.S. anti-submarine warfare exercise about 28 miles north west of Cape Flattery, Washington. Both ships sustained damage above the waterline and three Kootenay crewmembers were injured.

14 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Houston (SSN-713) accidentally snags a tow cable and sinks the tugboat Barcona south west of Long Beach, California. One tugboat crewmember is drowned. The Houston is in the area for the filming of the movie "The Hunt for Red October."

15 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In mid-June a leak forces the Royal Navy diesel submarine Otus to surface off the coast of Madeira,Spain.

15 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In mid-June a fire aboard the USS Pelileu (LHA-5) at Long Beach, California injures 14 and causes minor damage.

16 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Houston (SSN-713), en route to San Diego, California after participating in the filming of the "Hunt for Red October", becomes entangled in the net of the fishing boat Fortuna. No injuries are reported and damage to the net is estimated at $2,000.

26 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: A Soviet Echo II class nuclear-powered submarine surfaces in the Norwegian Sea billowing smoke after a leak in the pipes leading to its reactor's secondary cooling system forces the reactor tobe shut down. It is later revealed that some crewmembers were treated for radiation exposure and that measurable amounts of radiation were released.

28 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unknown Royal Navy submarine is involved in an incident with the fishing vessel Huntress in the Clyde area of the Irish Sea.

28 Giugno 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Bainbridge (CGN-25) runs aground off the Dutch coast after calling at the port of Den Helder.

1 Luglio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: In early July the Royal Navy diesel submarine Upholderexperiences a power failure and plunges several hundred feet while submerged off the west coast of Scotland during sea trials.

1 Luglio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In July, a flooding incident aboard the USS Houston (SSN-713) results in eight crewmembers being reassigned for psychological reasons.

16 Luglio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: A Soviet Alpha class nuclear-powered attack submarine is spotted on the surface billowing smoke from its observation tower off the coast of Norway in the Barents Sea. According to the Soviets the smoke was exhaust from the ship's diesel engines. The ship was on a combat training mission and was shifting its power load to a battery when "one of the cells was short-circuited..." 16 Luglio 1989 - Norvegia. Un sottomarino nucleare sovietico prende fuoco al largo delle coste norvegesi: è il terzo incidente dello stesso tipo nella stessa zona in meno di quattro mesi

26 Luglio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A sailor on the USS Conolly (DD-979) is lost after falling overboard as the ship patrols in the Persian Gulf.

27 Luglio 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: About 330 gallons of coolant water from the USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) spills into the James River while the ship is docked at Newport News, Virginia. A shipyard spokesperson terms the amount of radioactivity released as "minuscule".

1 Agosto 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In August, a small fire is reported aboard the USS Houston (SSN-713).

5 Agosto 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire breaks out in an electric motor aboard the Royal Navy nuclear-powered submarine Valiant while in port at the Faslane submarine base on the River Clyde in south west Scotland. There are no reported injuries and a Defense Ministry spokesperson says the fire posed no danger to the submarine's nuclear reactor.

12 Agosto 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: A Soviet Foxtrot class diesel-powered submarine catches the nets of a Norwegian fishing trawler southeast of Bear Island in international waters in the Norwegian sea. Five submarine crewmembers try to cut the submarine free using a blow-torch but the torch's connecting hoses are too short, and so instead they use axes and sledge hammers to free their vessel. The trawler's uninsured net valued at $70,000 was lost.

18 Agosto 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Five sailors are tossed overboard while being lowered from the USS Saratoga (CV-60) during a man-overboard drill 70 miles off the coast of Jacksonville, Florida. No injuries are reported.

22 Agosto 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A huge aircraft elevator carrying dozens of visitors touring the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) fails, injuring as many as 20 people, while the ship is holding an open house while docked at Port Everglades, Florida. A hydraulic line on the elevator broke, spraying fluid and causing the elevator to drop slightly and come to a sudden stop.

1 Settembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In September, an incident with a torpedo is reported aboard the USS Houston (SSN-713).

12 Settembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Royal Navy Resolution class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine loses a very low frequency (VLF) communications buoy, when the buoy snags the nets of the fishing vessel Contester in the Irish Sea 25 nautical miles north east of Dublin, Ireland. The submarine, which had been trailing the buoy while submerged, came to periscope depth after the incident to check for damage. According to a U.K. Ministry of Defense spokesperson, the buoy's towing wire parted almost immediately and the submarine sustained no damage. Irish reports, however, say the Contester was dragged backwards for about a mile at a speed of two knots before it broke free. It pulled in the buoy when it winched in its nets.

12 Settembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Two sailors from the USS Kalamazoo (AOR-6) are lost in the Atlantic when they are washed overboard while working on the maindeck.

22 Settembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS Narwhal (SSN-671) sustains minor damage during Hurricane Hugo while submerged at the Charleston Naval Base, South Carolina. The ship was moored with nine double wires and two three-inch ship's lines, all but one of which were ripped loose during the first half of the storm. During the eye of the storm, the captain discovered the submarine had drifted to the center of the Cooper River. Tugboats and the Narwhal crew unsuccessfully tried to move the submarine back to the pier. As the storm began again, the captain submerged the submarine in the river and the Narwhal rode out the remainder of the hurricane with only part of its conning tower exposed.

22 Settembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Soviet guided missile destroyer conducting gunnery exercises in the Mediterranean south of Crete accidentally fires a shell which passes in front of a U.S. P-3 Orion surveillance plane and explodes, creating a turbulence which jolts the aircraft. No injuries are reported, and the Soviets issue an apology.

29 Settembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The newly-commissioned USS Pennsylvania (SSBN-735) runs aground as it enters the channel during its first visit to Port Canaveral, Florida. Tugboats free the submarine in about two hours, and a Navy spokesperson says, "As far as we know, it's fine. "Port Canaveral is a public dock facility adjacent to the Navy complex where submarines are loaded with missiles for test firings off Cape Canaveral.

6 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A Navy F-14 Tomcat jet crashes into a fire wall aboard the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), catching fire and plunging into the sea. The two crewmembers are able to eject safely. The ship is on training exercises in the Atlantic off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia.

9 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An electrical fire in the forward elevator machinery room on the USS Forrestal (CV-59) injures nine sailors while the ship is in dock at the Mayport Naval Station, Florida.

11 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The USS EL Paso (LKA-177) accidentally hits the USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) with rounds from its Phalanx close-in weapons system during gunnery practice 80 miles southeast of Norfolk, Virginia. One man onboard the Iwo Jima is killed and another is injured. Damage is slight.

17 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A sailor is lost off the USS Downes (FF-1070) after falling over board while the ship is on exercises off Japan.

19 Ottobre 1989 - Vandellos, Spagna. Alle ore 21,39 nella sala delle turbine della centrale nucleare, si ha un inizio di incendio che provoca indirettamente un allagamento ed un danneggiamento di differenti sistemi, fra cui il refrigeratore del reattore. Questo incidente è classificato a livello 5 della scala INES.

20 ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Towards the end of October the Royal Navy mine sweeper Brecon runs aground on the Isle of Arran off the western coast of Scotland during exercises.

29 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A pilot making his first touch-and-go attempt aboard the USS Lexington (AVT-16) crashes on to the flight deck, killing five and injuring 19 crewmembers, while the ship is on training maneuvers in the Gulf of Mexico.

30 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Indian: A F/A-18 Hornet aircraft from the USS Midway (CV-41) mistakenly drops a 500-pound bomb on the deck of the USS Reeves (CG-24), during training exercises in the Indian Ocean 32 miles south of Diego Garcia, creating a five-foot hole in the bow, sparking a small fire, and injuring five sailors.

31 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A wave sweeps three sailors and 38 non-nuclear missiles from the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) during night-time cargo loading about 90 miles south east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. One sailor is drowned and two are rescued.

31 Ottobre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: A sailor is lost in the Pacific about 620 miles north of Wake Island after being washed overboard from the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70).

1 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The U.S. fishing trawler Recruit is towed a stern by a submarine caught in its nets 28 miles west of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The crew drops $20,000 worth of equipment overboard to avoid being pulled under water.

1 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: Fire in the engine room of the USS Monongahela (AO-178) off the coast of Spain injures nine.

1 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: In November, a navigation error aboard the USS Houston (SSN-713) results in the loss of a sonar device.

2 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Arctic: A Soviet Foxtrot class diesel-powered submarineis caught in the nets of the Norwegian trawler T.O. Senior in the Barents Sea, 50 miles north east of Vardoe, Norway. One Soviet crewmemberis washed into the sea while trying to free the submarine, and is rescued soon afterwards. Both the Norwegian coastguard and the Soviet trawler UUYP 1574 try unsuccessfully to loosen the submarine, and the nets are eventually severed by the rough sea.

8 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A sailor aboard the USS Forrestal (CV-59) is fatally injured when a hatch falls on him.

9 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Norwegian diesel-powered submarine Utsira is hit by a training torpedo during an exercise in the North Sea and slightly damaged.

11 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Pacific: The USS Kinkaid (DD-965) collides with the Singapore merchant ship Kota Petani in the Straight of Malacca, killing one U.S. sailor and injuring four crewmembers. Fires breaks out aboard both ships and the Kota Petani sustains major damage.

13 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: An unknown Royal Navy submarine snags the nets of the fishing vessel Scotia off the coast of Scotland and drags the vessel backwards for two miles before breaking free. The submarine surfaces and reports the incident and ensures that the crew of the Scotia are safe. The Scotia sustains damage to its propeller as well as to its gear, and the submarine has minor damage.

13 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire on the USS Finback (SSN-670) forces the vessel to cutshort sea trials and return to port in Norfolk, Virginia. There are no reported injuries and damage is minor.

14 Novembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: A fire in the hanger deck of the USS Inchon (LPH-12) injures31 people while the ship is docked for maintenance in Norfolk, Virginia.

24 Novembre 1989 - Greifswald, Germania Est: incendio. Operators disabled three of six cooling pumps to test emergency shutoffs. Instead of the expected automatic shutdown a fourth pump failed causing excessive heating which damaged ten fuel rods. The accident was attributed to sticky relay contacts and generally poor construction in the Soviet-built reactor.

12 Dicembre 1989 - (incidente unità navale nucleare) Atlantic: The Canadian Navy destroyer Saguenay is struck three times by the U.S. fishing vessel Concordia near Halifax, Nova Scotia after it chased the vessel out of a Canadian fishing zone. Damages to the Sagueney are slight

1990 - Azerbaijan. Ribelli Azerbaijani attaccano un deposito di ordigni nucleari nei pressi di Baku

1990 - Francia: scoperti 5 m/c d'acqua radioattiva presso la stazione nucleare di Fessenheim

1990 - Francia: avaria nelle tubature della stazione nucleare di Gravelines

1990 - Francia: il reattore di Creys-Malville viene spento per infiltrazione di sodio

1990 - Francia: vengono contaminati 2 operai nella stazione nucleare di Blayais

1990 - Gran Bretagna: Infiltrazione di sodio nel reattore di Dounreay

1990 - Spagna: infiltrazione d'acqua in parti dell'impianto nucleare di Ascò

1990 - Germania: infiltrazione di tritio nella stazione nucleare di Kruemmel

1990 - Bulgaria, centrale di Kozloduy: spegnimento di un reattore a causa di un terremoto

1990 - Belgio: avaria al sistema di raffreddamento nella stazione nucleare di Doel

1990 - Slovacchia: surriscaldamento cavi per il controllo del reattore e la protezione del sistema

1990 - Slovacchia: congelamento di alcune parti della centrale per aumento del livello di raffreddamento

1990 - Sasolburg, Sud Africa: fonte compromessa A cobalt-60 industrial radiography source was left behind following radiography work, with the operator failing to realize the source was left behind. Six people handled the source for 5 to 20 minutes, three of whom received whole body doses of 10 to 55 rad. One person had to have the right hand amputated above the wrist. Three others suffered skin injuries on the fingers.

Febbraio 1990 - Azerbaijan: Azerbeijani rebels unsuccessfully attacked a Soviet military depot near Baku where nuclear weapons are stored; Soviet troops were sent to secure the base

29 Marzo 1990 - USA: incidenti da fluoroscopio A male patient underwent several procedures using fluoroscopy (two coronary angiographies, a coronary angioplasty, and a coronary artery by-pass graft) in the same day. About one month later the skin became reddened on his back, eventually developing a small ulcerated area. The localized dose probably exceeded 2000 rads.

21 Giugno 1990 - Soreq, Israele: incidente in un impianto radioattivo commerciale The accident occurred at a commerical irradiator, in which packages are automatically moved through an area exposed to a cobalt-60 source. Several maintenance problems contributed to the accident, which began when packages became jammed in the irradiation area. An operator choose to reject the radiation warning indicator in favor of an indicator erroneously showing the cobalt source to be in safe (shielded) mode. He overrode safety features to enter the irradiation room; after a short time he felt burning in his eyes and a headache. He then left the room and contacted his supervisor, and shortly after began vomiting; he arrived at a hospital 8 hours after exposure. The worker received a whole body dose between 1000 and 2000 rads and died 36 days later of multiple organ failure, despite efforts including a bone marrow transplant.

24 Giugno 1990 - Chernobyl, Ucraina: evento sub critico di moltiplicazione di neuroni nella stanza 304/3 del reattore danneggiato

25 Giugno 1990 - Shanghai, Cina: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at an industrial irradiator which used a 23,000-curie cobalt-60 source for sterilization of traditional Chinese medicines. Access to the irradiation room was via a double door which had safety interlocks to prevent enter while the source was unshielded. However, the motor on one door had previously failed, putting the door out of commission, and a power failure disabled the interlock on the second door. One worker additionally violated procedure by turning on lights in the room without turning on electricity of the source system. During this period 7 workers entered the room to arrange product boxes for irradiation, with exposure times up to 40 minutes. A metal shroud prevented them from seeing that the source was exposed. One worker had nausea within 20 minutes, and several were vomiting within 2 hours. Several were hospitalized the following day. Two workers sustained exposures of 1,200 rad and 1,100 rad and were given bone marrow transplants from relatives, but both died (25 and 90 days after exposure, respectively). Exposures to the other 5 workers were at least 200 rad.

Luglio 1990 - Chernobyl, Ucraina: evento sub critico di moltiplicazione di neuroni nella stanza 304/3 del reattore danneggiato

10/20 Dicembre 1990 - Zarragosa, Spagna: incidente radioterapico An error occurred in the maintenance and calibration of a linear accelerator used for clinical radiotherapy; combined with procedural violations, overdosages of 200-700% occurred. The accelerator is related to the Therac-25 involved in several accidents in the United States and Canada. A total of 27 patients were overexposed during treatments for tumors between 10 and 20 December. Signs of radiation injury were observed on 26 December, and the first death occurred possibly shortly thereafter. By 28 February 1991 three patients had died, and an additional 7 died by 31 March 1991. Spainish authorities were reportly hesitant to release details of the accident, but sought foreign assistance in early 1991. A total of 18 eventually died as a result of radiation overexposures. The remaining patients all suffered major disabilities as a result.

14 Dicembre 1990 -Calabria, Italia. Spiaggiamento della motonave Rosso in Calabria, nella zona di Formiciche. Si sospetta che l'incidente sia avvenuto in seguito ad un fallito affondamento di rifiuti tossici radioattivi.

LISTA INCIDENTI NUCLEARI E CORRELATI (1991-oggi) torna all'indice clicca qui>>


1991 - Avaria nel sistema di raffreddamento nell'impiato nucleare di Belleville

1991 - Francia: errore umano causa lo spegnimento della stazione di Paluel

1991 - Francia: infiltrazione nel sistema refrigerante causa spegnimento del reattore a Nogent

1991 - Francia: un'avaria tecnica crea problemi nella stazione di Belleville

1991 - Francia: violazioni tecniche nell'impianto di Cattenom

1991 - Gran Bretagna: errore umano causa incendio nella stazione nucleare di Hinkley

1991 - Germania: incidente durante il rifornimento di carburante nella stazione di Wuergassen

1991 - Bulgaria: incendio alla centrale di Kozloduy

1991 - Svezia: malfunzionamento dei macchinari della stazione nucleare di Oskarshamn

1991 - Svezia: infiltrazioni rilevate nella stazione nucleare di Barsebeck

1991 - Svezia: diffusione di vapore radioattivo per malfunzionamento nell'impianto Barsebeck

1991 - Belgio: spegnimento del reattore della stazione di Tihange per errore tecnico

1991 - Finlandia: spegnimento manuale dovuto ad un incendio nella stazione di Olkiluoto

18 Gennaio 1991 - Guerra del Golfo. Per tutta la durata del conflitto Israele si è mantenuta in stato d'allerta nucleare.

Febbraio 1991 - Mihama (Giappone). La centrale riversa in mare 20 tonnellate di acqua altamente radioattiva

31 Luglio 1991 - Bush senior e Gorbachev siglano il primo trattato strategico bilaterale (Salt 1) per la riduzione delle Armi Strategiche (5.000 unità in meno nei prossimi 7 anni per entrambe le parti)

Agosto1991 - Forbach, Francia: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at an electron accelerator irradiator used to treat granulated polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). Three workers entered the irradiation room using the exit and were exposed to the dark current: the accelerator was switched off but accelerator voltage was still on, the result of a decision to save time. Exposure rate was between 10 and several hundred rad per second (compared to a maximum 8 megarad/second when the accelerator is on). The three received localized doses, one severe enough to produce skin legions. The skin doses were estimated at 4,000 rem (whole body dose 100 rem in this case) for the worker with the worst injury and 900 and 500 rem for the other two workers.

27 Settembre 1991 - Difficoltà a caricare un missile a bordo di un sottomarino sovietico, classe Typhoon, trasportante diverse armi nucleari.

26 Ottobre 1991 - Nesvizh, Belarus: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred during repairs at an irradiation facility that used a 30 PBq cobalt-60 source for sterilization of medical equipment. Although the specific actions are not fully known, an operator (34-year old male) failed to follow operating procedures and circumvented safety features in entering the irradiation room to deal with a jam of the product transport system. The source was exposed at the time, and the operator walked to within 0.5 m of the source before realizing his error and exiting, spending between 1 and 2 minutes in the irradiation room. He received a whole body dose of 1,250 rem and localized doses of up to 1,800 rem. Within 3 minutes of exiting he experienced nausea and diarrhea after an additional 13 minutes. The operator received extensive medical treatment but died 113 days later.

Dicembre 1991- M25 in Hertfordshire, Gran Bretagna (informazione tratta dall'Oxburg report, 1992, Gran Bretagna). Mechanical failure of a RAF nuclear weapon load carrier. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

11 Dicembre 1991 - Maryland, USA: incidente da irradiazione An accident at an electron accelerator irradiator resulting from safety violations caused severe radiation injury to one person. During maintenance an operator placed his heads, head, and feet in the beam from the electron dark current (while the electron source filament voltage was off but the high-voltage terminal on). Due to a dose of about 5,500-10,800 rem to the hands, four fingers on each hand had to be amputated about 3 months later. The man also suffered thinning of hair on the scalp after two weeks.

1977?-1991 - Gran Betragna. incidente radiografico An industrial radiographer died of leukemia in 1992 associated to prolonged chronic exposure to sources with which he worked. Acute exposures are unknown, but total estimated whole body dose over a several year period was 1,400 rad. The exact nature of the accidental exposures are not known but apparently occurred over a period of 10-14 years. The individual worked with torch-type iridium-192 sources from 1974 to 1983 and with remotely operated wind-out iridium-192 source from 1983 and thereafter. From about 1983 for six years the man suffered radiation-induced skin lesions on the hands, requiring amputation of part of two fingers around 1990.

1992 - Svezia: errore umano provoca un corto circuito nella stazione di Barsebaeck

1992 - Svezia: corto circuito in uno dei generatori a Barsebeck

1992 - San Antonio, Texas, USA: incidente radioterapico A patient was injured by an overdose of radioactive iodine-131 during the course of radiotherapy.

1992 - Amsterdam, Olanda. Dispersione di DU in seguito ad incidente aereo (volo EL AL

1992 - Francia: avaria tecnica nello stabilimento di Fessenheim

1992 - Francia: avaria tecnica nel sistema refrigerante nell'impianto di Dampierre

1992 - Francia: contaminati 2 operai nell'impianto di Dampierre

1992 - Gran Bretagna: avaria tecnica alla stazione di Sizewell

1992 - Germania: avaria al sistema di raffreddamento nella centarle di Brunsbuttel

1992 - Lituania: Avaria nel sistema di spegnimento della centrale di Ignalina

1992 - Lituania: avaria tecnica centrale di Ignalina

1992/prima metà 1993 - Svizzera. Gli investigatori svizzeri scoprono tredici casi di traffico illegale di materiale raioattivo, sequestrano materiale radioattivo per oltre 50 chilogrammi e individuano 34 persone implicate nelle operazioni clandestine.

Gennaio 1992 - Iran: Egyptian newspaper claimed Iran had bought three Soviet nuclear warheads from Kazakhstan for $150 million; Kazakhstan denied the report. In April Russian intelligence reported Iran had obtained at least two warheads from Kazakhstan; in July a Kazakh official said the three reportedly missing warheads were in test shafts at the Kazakh test site; in September a U.S. congressional task force alleged Iran had obtained 4 Soviet warheads (including 2 operational): two 40 kt SRBM warheads, one 50 kt NGB, and one 0.1 kt AFAP. By 1994 Russia said the warheads were accounted for; Israeli officials suggest the warheads were borrowed for disassembly and reverse engineering

9 Gennaio 1992 - Germania. Denunciati ottocento casi di ritrovamento di materiali radioattivi clandestinamente introdotti in Germania dalle repubbòiche ex sovietiche.

Marzo 1992 - CIS: Reportedly, box of radioactive material stolen from Pridniestroviye, Transdnestr; thieves threatened to blow up the material if fighting in Moldova was not stopped

24 Marzo 1992 - San Pietroburgo (Russia). A seguito della perdita di pressione nell'impianto di Sosnovy Bor nei pressi di San Pietroburgo, fuoriescono e si disperdono in atmosfera iodio e gas radioattivi.

Aprile 1992 - USA. Esperimento nucleare sotterraneo.

23 Giugno 1992 - USA. Ultimo test nucleare sotterraneo. NUMERO TOTALE DI TEST ESEGUITI DAGLI USA: 1.039 (il 25% circa atmosferici). il 28 giugno, due terremoti di insolita violenza (7,4 e 6,5 Richter) colpiscono il sud della California.

9 Ottobre 1992 - Podolsk, Russia. Ritrovato un chilo e mezzo di 235U trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS

25 Ottobre 1992 -San Pietroburgo, Russia. Sul reattore RBMK di Sosnovy Bor si ferma una saracinesca dell'acqua di uno dei 1.660 tubi di forza con conseguente distruzione dell'elemento di conbustibile e del tubo i forza.

Novembre 1992 - Forbach (Francia). Un grave incidente nucleare causa la contaminazione radioattiva di tre operai. I dirigenti dell'impianto vengono accusati, l'anno successivo, di non aver approntato le misure di sicurezza previste

Novembre 1992 - Cina: Incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at an irradiation facility, reportedly involving a power loss and out-of-order safety interlocks, possibly similar to an accident in Shanghai in 1990. Four workers were overexposed and one suffered acute radiation sickness.

16/21 Novembre 1992 - Città di Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA: incidente radioterapico An 82-year-old female patient was undergoing brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy, at the Indiana Regional Cancer Center. A 3.7-curie iridium-192 source was dislodged from equipment and accidentally left in the patient; this went unrecognized since the staff failed to perform required checks to secure sources. The patient was returned to the nursing home and died 93 hours later due to the radiation injury from the embedded source. The catheter containing the source was removed by the nursing home staff and disposed of as medical waste. The waste disposal company discovered the source during routine checks for radioisotopes. The ensuing Nuclear Regulatory Commission investigation concluded that exposures of 0.034 to 2.57 rem were incurred by 94 individuals, including clinic staff, nursing home staff, nursing home residents and visitors, and waste disposal company employees.

17 Novembre 1992 - Hanoi, Vietnam: incidente da irradiazione An accident occurred at a research-associated electron accelerator facility in Hanoi. An individual entered the irradiation room to adjust a sample for irradiation. The operators were unaware that the person had entered the room and turned on the beam at that time. The facility lacked safety interlocks or procedures to prevent such an accident. The individual received doses of 1,000 to 2,500 rad to the left hand and 2,000 to 5,000 rad to the right hand. Within one month one hand had to be amputated as well as the fingers on the other hand.

19 Novembre 1992 - Jilin, Xinzhou, Cina: fonte industriale compromessa During decommissioning, a 10-curie cobalt-60 source from an industrial irradiation facility was taken to a residence by a construction worker at the site. The source had been stored in water 6 meters deep in a well since 1980. The source was taken home on 19 November, exposing the worker's father and brother. The following day the worker became ill and went to the hospital, taking the source with him. He died 15 days after initial exposure, about the time radiation was identified as the cause of his illness. Eight individuals were exposed to sufficient radiation to cause severe injury, three of whom died--the construction worker and his father and brother--of exposures over 800 rad. Exposures to medical workers ranged up to 100-300 rads. Localized doses ranged from 25 to 1,000 rem. When radiation injury symptoms initially developed, local medical workers did not recognize the symptoms as radiation-induced. The source of the problem was not fully recognized for 2-3 weeks, and the source was not secured until 76 days after it was taken. A total of 14 people received doses exceeding 25 rad.

Novembre 1992 - Vandellos, Spagna. Il governo spagnolo decide la chiusura definitiva del reattore dopo che una fuoriuscita di effluenti liquidi radioattivi ha contaminato un vicino canale

Fine 1992 - Incominciano a diffondersi gli studi sulla relazione fra eventi simici e calamità da una parte e test nucleari dall'altra. Il professor Gary T. Whiteford, docente di geografia all'Università di Brunswick in Canada, scopre che i terremoti con magnitudine da 6 a 6,5 Richter sono più che raddoppiati da quando hanno avuto inizio i test nucleari sotterranei. Infatti, tali sismi furono 1.164 fra il 1900 ed il 1949; sono saliti a 2.844 tra il 1950 ed il 1988. Un significativo aumento è registrato anche per i sommovimenti tellurici di magnitudine compresa tra 6,5 e 7 Richter: furono 1.110 nel periodo 1900-1949; se ne contarono 1.465 tra il 1950 ed il 1988. Tali incrementi si sono verificati in tutte le zone particolarmente sismiche del globo. Ad esempio: la percentuale di tutti i terremoti (superiori o pari a 5,8 Richter) nelle Isole Aleutine era di 3,31 nel tempo precedente gli esperimenti nucleari americani nel Nevada. Tale percentuale salì fino al valore di 12,57 nel periodo dei test. Le isole Salomone e Nuova Bretagna (Oceano Pacifico) erano sismicamente tranquille nella prima metà del secolo scorso: la percentuale dei terremoti era di 2,98. Nell'epoca delle bombe nucleari francesi a Mururoa questo valore è quasi quintuplicato: 10,08. Anche l'isola di Vanuatu ha pagato un pesante tributo alla grandeur nucleare francese. La sua percentuale di terremoti era di 3,36 nell'arco di tempo 1900-1949; nel periodo seguente contrassegnato dai test, tale cifra è balzata a 9,30. Nell'isola Novaya Zemlya non avvennero mai violenti terremoti nel primo cinquantennio del secolo scorso; da quando vi fu costruita una base per esperimenti nucleari sovietici, si sono avute sei scosse telluriche di grandezza pari o superiore a 5,8 Richter. In una visione globale si può rilevare che, nei primi cinquanta anni di del secolo scorso, sono stati registrati 3.419 terremoti di magnitudine uguale o superiore a 6 Richter, con una media di 68 all'anno. Dal 1950 al 1989, i terremoti in questione sono stati 4.963, con una media di 127 all'anno: il valore è quasi raddoppiato. Il professor Whiteford ha compiuto inquietanti scoperte a proposito dei cosiddetti "terremoti assassini" (killer quakes), cioè sismi che provocano almeno 1.000 vittime. "Nel corso di 37 anni di sperimentazione nucleare, venti dei trentadue terremoti assassini, ovvero il 62,5%, avvennero lo stesso giorno o entro quattro giorni dal test". Dati allarmanti provengono anche da uno studio di due scienziati giapponesi, Shigeyoshi Matsumae e Yoshio Kato, della Tokai University di Tokio: "Fenomeni anomali meteorologici, terremoti e la variazione dell'asse terrestre sono notevolmente correlati ai test atmosferici e sotterranei. Essi hanno causato un aumento della temperatura dell'esosfera terrestre da 100 a 150 gradi, che cresce in modo abnorme immediatamente dopo un test nucleare. Ad esempio, è stato scoperto che la temperatura assoluta salì da 70 ad 80 gradi dopo un test sovietico che fu rilevato dalla stazione d'osservazione da Uppsala, il 23 agosto 1975. Similmente, un continuo e drastico rialzo della temperatura fu osservato in occasione di una fitta serie di sei esplosioni sperimentali avvenute tra il 18 ed il 29 ottobre 1975". E concludono: "La temperatura dell'atmosfera è cambiata dai test nucleari, un cambiamento che neppure il sole potrebbe produrre. Si può facilmente immaginare quali effetti abbia tutto ciò sulle condizioni meteorologiche della terra"

1993 - Russia. Due testate nucleari vengono semplicemente rubate con un'auto da due impiegati nei pressi di Chelyabinsk, un sito di assemblaggio di ordigni atomici. Le testate sono ritrovate nel garage di casa dei ladri

1993 - Russia: A radioactive substance was planted in the chair of Vladimir Kaplun, director of a Russian packing company; over several weeks Kaplun contracted radiation sickness and died

1993 - Russia: la mafia russa uccide Vladimir Kaplun, direttore di una grande azienda, collocando sotto la sua sedia una sorgente radioattiva

1993 - Francia: errore umano causa problemi tecnici nell'impianto di Cruas

1993 - Francia: avaria al sistema di strumentazione e controllo nello stabilimento di Saint Alban

1993 - Francia: incidente nel sistema di raffreddamento nella stazione di Paluel

1993 - Gran Bretagna: malfunzionamento della stazione nucleare di Wylfa

1993 - Bulgaria, centrale di Kozloduy: infiltrazione e rilascio di sostanze radioattive

17 Gennaio 1993 - Iraq. Gli Stati Uniti lanciano 45 missili da crociera Tomahawk contro il complesso industriale iracheno di Zaafaraniyeh che, secondo i servizi segreti, avebbe fabbricato degli equipaggiamenti di uranio arricchito.

13 Febbraio 1993 - Sellafield (Gran Bretagna). Fuga radioattiva nell'impianto di riprocessamento di Sellafield. La densità massima di radionuclidi dello iodio consentita viene superata di oltre tre volte.

17 Febbraio 1993 - Barsebaeck (Danimarca). Uno dei reattori della centrale di Barsebaeck viene temporaneamente fermato a causa della fuoriuscita accidentale di vapore radioattivo.

Marzo 1993 - Impianto ITREC di Trisaia, Rotondella, Italia. Primo incidente radioattivo nell'impianto: versamento sulla spiaggia di liquido contaminato della condotta di scarico a mare

20 Marzo 1993 - Mare di Barents. Un sottomarino nucleare russo classe Delta 3 con missili balistici nucleari entra in collisione con il sottomarino d'attacco nucleare USS Grayling

06 Aprile 1993 - Siberia (Russia). Nell'impianto di recupero del plutonio di Tomsk 7 della Siberian Chemical Enterprise, un aumento di pressione causa una esplosione e genera una falla di 34 metri cubi nel serbatoio d'acciaio inossidabile contenuto nel bunker dell'edificio 201, seppellendolo. Il serbatoio conteneva acido nitrico concentrato, uranio (8.757 kg), plutonio (449 gr), diluito con una mistura di rifiuti organici e radioattivi derivanti dal primo ciclo estrattivo. L'esplosione causa la completa copertura del bunker e l'apertura di un grande squarcio nel soffitto dell'edificio, rilasciando nell'ambiente approssimativamente 6 GBq di Plutonio239 e 30 TBq di altri radionuclidi.
A causa dell'indicente, 160 lavoratori dell'impianto e circa 200 liquidatori sono esposti ad una dose totale superiore a 50 mSv (il limite di sicurezza stabilito per i lavoratori degli impianti nucleari è pari a 100 mSv in 5 anni).
La nube radioattiva si propaga per 28 Km a nord est dell'edificio 201, oltre 20 km al di fuori del perimetro dell'impianto. Il piccolo villaggio di Georgievka (pop. 200 persone) si trova proprio al limite della nube radioattiva ma, per pura fatalità, non sono state registrate malattie o problemi sanitari di alcun genere. 
Risultano contaminati circa 1.000 ettari di terreno. La nube radioattiva si dirige verso zone disabitate.

14 Aprile 1993 - Russia: omicidio usando una fonte radioattiva A radioactive substance, probably cesium-137 (and/or cobalt-60) was planted in the chair of Vladimir Kaplun, director of the Kartontara packing company. Over several weeks Kaplun contracted radiation sickness and was hospitalized for a month before his death. The contamination was identified after his death by colleages.

24 Maggio 1993 - Vilnius, Lithuania: 4.4 t of beryllium including 140 kg contaminated with HEU (150 g) were discovered in the storage area of a bank.

17 Luglio 1993 - Il sottomarino d'attacco nucleare Rubis entra in collisione con una nave cisterna e subisce gravi danni

Agosto 1993 - Francia. Il sottomarino Rubis entra in collisione con una petroliera a largo di Fos: si sfiora la catastrofe ambientale

Fine 1993 - dal 1954 al 1993 la Gran Bretagna ha eseguito 21 test nucleari nell'atmosfera e 24 sotterranei; la russia rispettivamente 207 e 508; la cina 23 e 16.

Settembre 1993 - Ucaina. Gli specialisti nucleari russi scoprono che l'aumento dei livelli di radiazione nel deposito di munizioni ucraino di Pervomaisk, è dovuto alle insufficienti msure di sicurezza e alle procedure di custodia.

Ottobre 1993 - Frontiera fra Ucraina e Russia. I russi scoprono in un vagone ferroviario testate nucleare emittenti pericolosamente radiaottività. Le armi furono confiscate per due settimane dal Colonnello Yevgeny Maslin, Generale in capo del dipartimento degli Armamenti nucleari della Russia.

27 ottobre 1993 - Zurigo, Svizzera. All' aeroporto di Kloten viene arrestato un trafficante d' armi, che ammettedi aver ricevuto materiale radioattivo da uno sconosciuto dell' Est, che lo avrebbe pregato di disfarsene.

Novembre 1993 - Russia: Two nuclear warheads reportedly stolen by two employees of the Zlatoust-36 Instrument Building Plant near Chelyabinsk, a weapons assembly facility; weapons recovered in a nearby residential garage and the employees arrested shortly afterwards

7 Dicembre 1993 - USA. Il Dipartimento di Stato Americano rivela di aver effettuato 204 esplosioni nucleari sotterranee segrete nel corso degli ultimi 45 anni. Il numero globale dei test nucleari americani si attesta a 1051. Il Dipartimento dell'energia rivela, allo stesso modo, che gli Stai Uniti avevano deliberatamente esposto diversi americani a livelli di radioattività pericolosa nel corso di esperimenti medici e senza il loro consenso.

1994/1996 - Cina: uno studente universitario cinese versa per gelosia 32P nel cibo di un collega

1994 - Russia. In un sito siberiano di ICBM SS-25, un soldato russo spara e uccide due commilitoni prima di arrendersi

1994 - Vilnius, Lituania. Trafugati 2 chili di 235U trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS

1994 - Texas City, Texas, USA: incidente da irradiazione

1994 - Lituania: spegnimento della centrale nucleare di Ignalina per pericolo d'attacco terroristico

Febbraio 1994 - Francia. Incendio a bordo del sommergibile Amethiste

Marzo 1994 - Francia. Incendio a bordo del sommergibile Emeraude: 10 vittime tra l'equipaggio.

Marzo 1994 - St.Petersburg, Russian Federation: An individual was arrested in possession of HEU (2,972 kg), which he had previously stolen from a nuclear facility. The material was intended for illegal sale.

Marzo 1994 - Russia: At SS-25 ICBM site at Barnaul in Siberia, a Russian soldier opens fire with sub-machine gun and kills commander and two other soldiers; other soldiers could not return fire because they would have had to fire towards the SS-25; the soldier was persuaded to surrender after three hours, having taking refuge in an armoured vehicle

20 Marzo 1994 - Il caso Ilaria Alpi. Vengono uccisi Ilaria Alpi e Mirko Hrovatin per avere scoperto lo smaltimento di rifiuti radioattivi in Somalia (zona di Bosaso).
Gli eventi correlati:
- 1977/1988. Il CCR (Centro comune di Ricerca) ad ISPRA sul Lago Maggiore studia per la Comunità Europea (con il sostegno di Italia, Francia, Stati Uniti, Belgio, Canada, Australia, Giappone, Inghilterra, Svezia, Germania Ovest, Olanda e Svizzera) il piano DODOS: Deep Ocean Data Operating. L'obiettivo del progetto era quello di valutare lo stoccaggio di scorie radioattive in ambiente naturale terrestre e marino, ovvero l'inserimento delle scorie in missili-penetratori e la loro eliminazione dentro i fondali. Al termine del progetto e a piano scartato per il timore di attentati terroristici ai siti marini, viene rubato un fondamentale componente elettronico di una boa per il controllo dei siluri. Gli investigatori sospettano del furto il faccendiere Giorgio Comerio, collaboratore nel progetto.
- 1982/1990. La ODM (Oceanic Disposal Management) del faccendiere Comerio raggiunge un accordo per la concessione di zone marine, denominata EEL, ove sepellire penetratori carichi di scorie radioattive, con 45 nazioni.
- 1995. Fonte giudiziarie confermano l'attività di smaltimento di rifiuti radioattivi tramite l'affondamento con penetratori da parte di americani (nell'Atlantico, in prossimità delle coste del Brasile) e di francesi. Tale procedimento viene adottato anche dai russi presso Novaja Semlja.
- 1995. Viene fermato alla frontiera fra l'Italia e la Svizzera con una valigetta zeppa di carte sullo smaltimento dei rifiuti radioattivi, il procacciatore d'affari Elio Ripamonti. Nelle deposizioni racconta del sistema di smaltimento messo in atto dalla ODM di Comerio, il faccenderie con conoscenze all'interno dell'ENEA (Ente Italiano per le Nuove Tecnologie, Energie e Ambiente). Il sistema era basato su "container messi in siluri di acciaio, studiati per essere collocati nel fondo marino a circa 400 metri di profondità", nonostante il divieto dello smaltimento in mare previsto dalla Convenzione di Londra del 1979.
- 1995. Nella villa del faccenderie Giorgio Comerio viene trovata una copia del certificato di morte di Ilaria Alpi.
- 20/06/1995. Viene rinvenuta, fra la documentazione del SISMI riguardante il faccendiere Giorgio Comerio, una bolla di consegna di 8.000 kg. di rifiuti radioattivi provenienti dall'America a bordo della nave AKRUX.

23 Marzo 1994 - Biblis (Germania). Centrale nucleare di Biblis: una falla nel circuito primario di un reattore fa uscire liquido altamente contaminato.

Marzo 1994 - San Pietroburgo, Russia. Ritrovati tre chili e mezzo di 235U trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS

28 Aprile 1994 - Tokyo, Giappone: incidente da irradiazione An x-ray technician was disassembling an x-ray analyzer. Unaware that the x-ray beam was on, he exposed his hand for about 3 seconds when he felt warmth between two fingers. He did not recognize that injurious exposure had occurred until injury to his hand developed about 2 weeks later.

10 Maggio 1994 - Tengen-Wiechs, Germania. Ritrovati 56 grammi di 239U trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS - Plutonium (6.2 g) was detected in a building during a police search.

Giugno 1994 - Polyarny, Russia. Trafugati 4 chili e mezzo di 235U trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS

13 Giugno 1994 - Landshut, Germany: A group of individuals was arrested in illegal possession of HEU (0.795 g.)

28 Giugno 1994 - Petropavlosk (Russia). Fuga di materiale radioattivo nella baia di Seldevaia a causa della rottura di un deposito a Petropavlosk.

25 Luglio 1994 - Munich, Germany: A small sample of PuO2-UO2 mixture (0.24 g) was confiscated in an incident related to a larger seizure at Munich Airport on 1994-08-10.

Agosto 1994 - Germania. Tre persone arrestate all'aeroporto di Monaco mentre trasportavano su un volo Lufthansa da Mosca, 363 grammi di Plutonio

10 Agosto 1994 - Aeroporto di Monaco di Baviera, Germania. Trafugato mezzo chilo di 239Pu trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS - PuO2-UO2 mixture (363.4 g) was seized at Munich airport

21 Ottobre/18 Novembre 1994 - Tammiku, Estonia: fonte compromessa On 21 October a cesium-137 source was stolen from a radioactive waste facility by three brothers. One of them had picked up the source when it fell out of a metal block and placed it in his jacket pocket. He took the source to his home and hung his jacket, containing the source, in a hallway, already feeling ill. On 25 October he was hospitalized and died 2 November; the cause of death was diagnosed as kidney failure, and no radiation injury was recognized at this time. On 9 November the man's stepson found the source in the jacket and moved it to a kitchen drawer. On 17 November the child was hospitalized with burns which were recognized as radiation burns by hospital staff. The staff notified authorities, who found the source in the house on 18 November. The man who carried the source home received a 183,000 rem dose to his thigh and a 400 rem whole-body dose. Of the other perpetrators, one received a 1,200-2,000 rem dose to his hands, causing injury and the other a whole body dose of less than 100 rem, causing mild radiation sickness. The three other residents of the house were injured: the child received a dose of 360 rads, with localized dose to the hands of 2,500 rem, requiring amputation of the fingers on one hand; the man's mother received a whole body dose of 225 rem or more and developed moderate radiation sickness, and the man's wife received a whole body dose of 50 rem. A dog that slept near the source indoors also died.

1 Settembre 1994 - Tambov, Russia. Un gruppo di uomini si introduce nel deposito di materiali della fabbrica chimica di Tambov attraverso un foro praticato nel muro e ruba una fiala contenente 4,5 grammi di cesio 137

14 Dicembre 1994 - Praga, Repubblica Ceca. Trafugati 2 chili di 235U trafugato da deposito dell'ex URSS - HEU (2.73 kg) was seized by police in Prague. The material was intended for illegal sale.

1995 - Svezia: infiltrazione d'acqua radioattiva e spegnimento della stazione di Ringhalls

1995 - Russia. Un gruppo di ribelli ceceni contatta una stazione televisiva russa dichiarandosi in grado di produrre un ordigno radioattivo. Come prova, fanno ritrovare del Cesio 137 nel parco Izmailovsky di Mosca...dopo due settimane di esposizione ai civili.

1995 - Francia. Alcuni sabotatori aggiungono sale nel sistema di raffreddamento di un reattore nucleare di potenza

1995 - Francia: incidente radiografico An employee of a boiler-making firm suffered localized radiation injury from handling of a 27-curie iridium-192 source. The details of exposure were not immediately known since the exposure was not immediately recognized. The employee developed radiation injuries to his hands which were only connected to his exposure when his dosimeter was processed and showed a dose of 20 rem. The exposure to his hands was over 3,000 rem.

1995 - Francia: fonte compromessa A 0.2-curie cesium-137 source from a density gauge was handled by an individual other than an employee, resulting in reddening of the skin on the hands.

1995 - Tyler, Texas, USA: incidente radioterapico A patient was injured by an overdose of radioactive iodine-131 during the course of radiotherapy.

1995 - Bulgaria: spegnimento accidentale automatico della centrale di Kozloduy

1995 - Gran Bretagna: spegnimento di un reattore per infiltrazione di liquido refrigerante a Hartlepool

1995 - Germania. L'Alta Corte tedesca decide che la licenza di attività concessa alla stazione di Mülheim-Kärlich è illegale, a causa della mancata considerazione, in fase di concessione, del rischio di terremoto nella zona.

Giugno 1995 - Moscow, Russian Federation: An individual was arrested in possession of HEU (1.7 kg), which he had previously stolen from a nuclear facility. The material was intended for illegal sale.

6 Giugno 1995 - Prague, Czech Republic: An HEU sample (0.415 g) was seized by police in Prague.

8 Giugno 1995 - Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic: An HEU sample (16.9 g) was seized by police in Ceske Budejovice.

Settembre 1995 - Kola (Mare di Barents). L'energia elettrica della centrale di Kola viene staccata per morosità e vanno fuori uso i sistemi di raffreddamento. Incidente solo sfiorato, grazie all'intervento del comandante della base.

Novembre 1995 - Chernobyl (Ucraina) (scala Ines 3). Un'avaria al sistema di raffreddamento del reattore n.1 di Chernobyl causa un incidente nel quale la radioattività si disperde e contamina gli operai impegnati nella manutenzione.

23 Novembre 1995 - Russia: Shamil Basayev, Chechen rebel commander, directs television news crew to a parcel of cesium-137 buried in Izmailovsky Park, eastern Moscow; parcel reportedly posed no threat and was removed. Parcel weighed 32 kg, contained 10-50 mCi, and was part of a hospital x-ray machine taken in a prior raid

Dicembre 1995 - France: Saboteurs put salt into a cooling contour of one of the Blayais nuclear power reactors

8 Dicembre 1995 - Monju (Giappone). Due tonnellate di sodio liquido e altro materiale radioattivo fuoriescono dal reattore nucleare prototipo di Monju nella prefettura di Fukui a causa di un malfunzionamento al sistema di raffreddamento. L'impianto è costituito da un reattore autofertilizzante a neutroni veloci FBR.

1996 - Germania. Un programma della TV tedesca, Monitor, svela che la Siemens ha compiuto numerosi errori durante la costruzione della stazione di Kruemmel.

1996 - Russia. Attacco di ribelli ceceni alla base aerea di Kizlyar

1996 - Russia. Un militare si barrica in un sottomarino nucleare e per molte ore tiene testa alle forze di sicurezza

1996 - Lituania: infiltrazione d'olio causa lo spegnimento della centrale di Ignalina

1996 - Slovacchia: ingegnere accusato di contrabbando d'uranio radioattivo con la Germania

1996 - Belgio: esplosione nella stazione nucleare di Tihange

9 Gennaio 1996 - Russia: Chechen fighters attack a Russian military airfield at Kizlyar unsucessfully, then temporarily take about 2,000 civilian hostages

27 gennaio 1996 - Mururoa (Oceano Pacifico - Francia). Test nucleare: ultimo test francese a Mururoa. Dal 1966 al 1996, la Francia ha realizzato nei suoi territori polinesiani 193 esperimenti nucleari, di cui 46 atmosferici e 147 sotterranei.

Febbraio 1996 - Dimitrovgrad (Federazione Russa). Un addetto causa la rottura della valvola di sicurezza di uno dei reattori del centro di ricerche atomiche di Dimitrovgrad. Fuoriesce una nube radioattiva contenente soprattutto radionuclidi di manganese. 

Febbraio 1996 - Vandellos, Spagna. 15 persone sono contaminate per inalazione dall'americio 241 mentre svuotano le piscine del combustile della centrale (chiusa nel nivenbre 1992)

Giugno 1996 - New York: several individuals arrested in plot to kill Republican officials; seized weapons included radioactive materials

Giugno1996/9 Ottobre 1997 - Lilo Training Center, Tbilisi, Georgia: fonte compromessa From April to August 1997 several soldiers at the Lilo Training Centre developed skin lesions, which were recognized as radiation burns in August. On 26 August a radiation hot spot was discoverd at the training site near an underground shelter. On 13 September a source was removed from one soldier's jacket. By October 11 patients had been identified. Several individuals suffered vomiting. A dozen individual sources were found, plus 200 sighting devices containing radium-226. Estimated doses are as high as (for the 11 individuals) 590, 420, 410, 150, 110, 110, 70, 60, 60, 20, and 20 rem.

24 Luglio 1996 - Gilan, Iran: fonte industriale radiografica compromessa During the night of 23-24 July a radiographer used a 5-Ci iridium-192 source for checking boiler welds at a fossil fuel power plant. The source became detached from the radiography device cable and fell into a trench, unknown to the operator. About 8:00 AM on 24 July a worker discovered the pencil-sized source and put it in a chest pocket. He occasionally removed it and examined it over the next 90 minutes, at which time he began to experience dizziness, nausea, lethagy, and a burning feeling in the chest; he then returned the source to where he had found it. Operators had discovered the source was missing at 9:00 and found it at 10:00, unaware that someone had suffered exposure. The exposed worker reported his illness at 13:00. The worker received a whole body dose of 450 rem and larger localized doses (up to 5,000 rad to the chest) requiring plastic surgery.

22 Agosto/27 Settembre 1996 - San Jose, Costa Rica: incidente radioterapico An error in the calibration of a cobalt-60 radiotherapy unit in Costa Rica resulted in overdosages of about 60%. The equipment change that produced the error occurred on 22 August, with the first treatments administered on 26 August. Of 42 patients that died through 7 July 1997, 3 died probably as a direct result of radiation exposure and 4 more with radiation exposure a contributing cause. Another 22 died probably of their disease and not of radiation exposure. Of the surviving overexposed patients, 4 suffered "catastrophic" consequences, 16 more severe effects, 26 had lesser effects, and 22 had no effects. Some sources attribute 17 deaths to the misadministrations.

Dopo il 1996 - Russia: Gunman barracades himself in a nuclear submarine and holds police at bay for several hours

1997 - Belgio: guasto al sistema di controllo della stazione di Doel

1997 - Georgia: fonte compromessa. L'incidente avviene presso il centro di addestramento militare di Lilo in seguito all'esposizione di reclute a sorgenti radioattive lasciate nei depositi dai precedenti utilizzatori sovietici e di cui era ignota l'esistenza A medical teletherapy cobalt-60 source was left unsecured near a station, causing a fatal radiation exposure to one individual.

1997 - Francia: un treno con 180t di scorie radioattive deraglia nei pressi di Apach

1997 - Germania. 20.000 dimostranti si affollano presso il deposito di scorie radioattive di Gorleben per manifestare contro il trasporto di scorie nucleari.

1997 - Germania: un treno carico di liquido nucleare deraglia di fronte alla stazione di Kruemmel

Marzo 1997 - Tokaimura (Giappone). Un incendio e un'esplosione nel reattore nucleare nell'impianto di ritrattamento nucleare di Tokaimura contamina almeno 35 operai.

Maggio 1997 - Russia: Aleksandr Lebed claims privately and later publicly that a number of Soviet ADMs disguised as suitcases are missing; his claims are affirmed by some but no concrete evidence emerges

30 Maggio 1997 - Blayais, Francia. Il misuratore del Boro del reattore N° 1 della centrale nucleare di Blayais (Gironde) si ferma per un inconveniente.

17 Giugno 1997 - Arzamas (Russia). Un incidente nel centro ricerche di Arzamas porta i materiali radioattivi sull'orlo di una reazione a catena. Si sviluppa una nube radioattiva a seguito della quale muore il responsabile dell'esperimento. A criticality accident occurred at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, formerly Arzamas-16. An experimenter was attempting to replicate a successful 1972 experiment involving a sphere of highly enriched uranium (90%) surrounded by a spherical copper reflector. However, he had incorrectly recorded the outside reflector dimensions and as a result used a much larger reflector; further, he had failed to complete appropriate paperwork on the experiment and was working alone. He had assembled the uranium sphere within a hemisphere of the copper reflector in an experimental cell. While adding the first layer of the second copper hemisphere, it dropped onto the assembly and produced a supercritical assembly at 10:40 AM. A flash of light resulted, after which the experimenter left the cell. The uranium core reached a calculated peak temperature of 865° C before power output declined to a steady 480 W. The assembly remained in this state until 12:45 AM on 24 June 1997 when it was remotely disassembled. The experimenter received a dose of 4850 rem, from which he died the morning of 20 June, 66 hours after the accident.

Luglio 1997 - La Hague (Francia). Il comune di Amburgo denuncia presenza di radioattività nell'acqua scaricata nella Manica dall'impianto di trattamento francese di La Hague. La Francia smentisce, ma il presidente della Commissione di controllo si dimette.

Settembre 1997 - Urali (Russia). Sugli Urali si scontrano un trattore e un camion che trasporta isotopi radioattivi. Da due container fuoriesce liquido pericoloso contenente iridio 192 e cobalto 60. Nell'area la radioattività sviluppata è 25 volte superiore al limite consentito.

1 Ottobre 1997 - Russia. Dopo aver condotto un inventario delle atomiche russe negli anni 90, l'allora Segretario del Consiglio di Sicurezza, Gen. Alexander Lebed, trovò che 84 "suitcase" nuclear bombs erano svanite dall'arsenale russo

Novembre 1997 - Russia: Several threats to sabotage submarine nuclear reactors are made by one or more Murmansk shipyard workers in demanding back pay they are owed

1988 - Lockerbie, Scozia, Gran Bretagna. Dispersione di DU in seguito ad incidente aereo (voloPAN AM 103)

1998 - Houston, Texas, USA: incidente da irradiazione A radiographer trainee with Global X-Ray and Testing Corporation, based in Houston, received localized radiation injury from a 123 curie iridium-192 radiography source. The trainee and a radiographer were at a job site at Aransas Pass in violation of regulatory requirements regarding radiography teams. The trainee was inappropriately permitted to operated the radiography equipment. At about 6:00 PM the trainee had placed his dosimeter in the vehicle in preparation to leave when the radiographer asked him to assist in another measurement. While setting up to use the equipment he discovered that he had failed to retract the source into its shielded position following a previous use. The individual incurred a 3,000-5,000 rem dose to his hand and a 10 rem whole body dose. The company notified the state regulatory agency on 1 January 1999. A radiation burn developed on the right index finger by 10 January 1999, and on 27 January developed a callous on the finger.

1 Maggio 1998 - Catena delle Alpi. Le autorità di controllo francesi scoprono elevati livelli di contaminazione da cesio 137 sulle Alpi, causati dal passaggio di rottami ferrosi provenienti dall'Europa dell'Est.

11-13 Maggio 1998 - L' India conduce 3 test nucleari sotterranei nel poligono di Kophkran - Rajastan. La prima esplosione ha utilizzato circa 12 Kilotoni, e la seconda 43 Kilotoni. La terza esplosione avrebbe utilizzato solo 1 Kilotone. I tre test sono stati condotti a differenti profondità in un raggio di 1 Km. Il secondo test ha prodotto una vibrazione che e' stata registrata come un evento sismico di 4.7 gradi della scala Richter.

12 Maggio 1998 - Civaux (Vienne), Francia. Fuga dell'acqua di raffreddamento dal reattore 1 a causa di una fissurazione in un tubo di 18 cm di lunghezza e di di 2,5 mm di larghezza. La fissurazione è stata causata per un cattivo miscelamento dell'acqua calda e dell'acqua fredda (livello 2, scala INES)

28-30 Maggio 1998 - Pakistan: vengono condotti 6 test atomici. Secondo le dichiarazioni pakistane i primi tre test hanno utilizzato bombe di potenza inferiore ad 1 Kilotone. Gli altri tre test hanno utilizzato potenze tra 12 e 25 Kilotoni. E' stato aperto una dibattito internazionale sulla possibile correlazioni dei test in un'area ad alto rischio sismico e il catastrofico sisma che ha colpito l'Afghanistan settentrionale proprio pochi minuti prima dell'esplosione del secondo gruppo di test.

3 Settembre 1998 - Blayais, Francia. Il misuratore del Boro del reattore N° 1 della centrale nucleare di Blayais (Gironde) si ferma per un inconveniente.

28 Settembre 1998 - Golfech (Tarn-et-Garonne), Francia. Il gestore della centrale omette dei dati durante un controllo dei canali dei flussi di neutroni del nocciolo del reattore.

14 Ottobre 1998 - Golfech (Tarn-et-Garonne), Francia. Per un lasso di tempo di 30 ore, la reazione a catena della centrale va in sovraccarico del 7%

27 Novembre 1998 - Golfech (Tarn-et-Garonne), Francia. Evacuato l'edificio del reattore per la rilevazione di radioattività nell'atmosfera. Dodici addetti presentano una leggera contaminazione.

Dicembre 1998 - Argun, Cecenia. Un contenitore riempito con materiale radioattivo viene ritrovato attaccato ad una mina nei pressi di una ferrovia.

10 Dicembre 1998/8 Gennaio 1999 - Istanbul, Turchia: fonte compromessa radiografica Two cobalt-60 radiotherapy sources were stored in a warehouse in Istanbul which transferred ownership. The sources were not recognized for what they were and sold for scrap to purchasers who broke open the shielded containers in a residential area on 10 December. On 13 December, 10 individuals fell ill (including some children) with 6 vomiting. They sought medical treatment, but the cause of the illness was not recognized (they were released from a clinic on 14 December). One source (of 88 curies) had been transferred to a scrapyard on 28 December where it was recovered. On 8 January 1999 two individuals sought treatment at a private hospital. Suspicion of radiation injury was reported to authorities, and within hours recovery efforts began at the scrapyard. The second source was not recovered; records indicate it was a 636 curie source. Estimated doses to those injured were, in rem: 310, 250, 250, 230, 220, 180, 90, 80, 60, and 60. Five individuals exhibited acute radiation injury, and one person had radiation injuries to the skin on fingers of one hand.

31 Dicembre 1998 - USA e Russia mantengono 7000 testate nucleari pronte ad essere lanciate in 15 minuti.

1999 - Stati Uniti: un uomo versa 32P sulla sedia di un collega di lavoro. Dose di alcune decine di rem

1999 - Albania. Dispersione di DU in seguito ad incidente aereo (volo Hercules Royal Air Forces)

1999 - Inghilterra. Dispersione di DU in seguito ad incidente aereo (Jumbo Korean AL)

1999 - Kingisepp, Russia: fonte compromessa The radioisotope core of a radiothermal generator was recovered at a bus station in Kingisepp. Radiation levels at the surface of the source were 1000 rad/hour. The source had been stolen from a lighthouse 50 km away by three men stealing metal to sell as scrap; all three died of radiation injury.

1999 - Mini guerra Kargil fra India e Pakistan. Entrambi i paesi entrano nel livello 3 di allerta nucleare (possibilità di lancio di bombe nucleari a breve raggio).

8 Gennaio 1999 - Francia. Centrale di Cruas Meysse, 65 persone evacuate dopo che si sono accese le luci d'allarme radioattivo.

28 Gennaio 1999 - Cruas Meysse, Francia. Fuga radioattiva alla centrale con evacuazione di due membri del personale. Livello 1, scala INES

20 Febbraio 1999 - Yanango, Peru: fonte compromessa. Una sorgente di Ir 192 con una attività di circa 1TBq viene portata da un impiegato al proprio domicilio e ritrovata soltanto dopo circa 10 ore. Nonostante le cure la vittima subì amputazioni e danni irreversibili. A welder working with a radiographer at a hydroelectric plant picked up a lost iridium-192 industrial radiography source on 20 Feburary 1999 and put it in his pocket for several hours. After about six hours the worker began experiencing pain in the back of the right thigh. He went home with the source, causing minor exposures to family members. The radiographer, having discovered the source was missing about midnight, came to the welder's home at 1:00 AM on 21 February and helped discover the source. The welder received an estimated whole body dose of 150 rem, although localized doses were much higher--up to 10,000 rad to one buttock--requiring amputation of one leg.

11 Marzo 1999 -Francia, centrale del Tricastin: un contaminato.

24 Marzo 1999 - Kosovo: scoppia la guerra. Nel suo corso la NATO dichiara di aver sparato circa 31.000 proiettili all'uranio impoverito per un totale di circa 10 tonnellate di DU sparse in Kosovo. Centinaia di bombe a uranio impoverito vengono sganciate nel mare Adriatico da aerei americani
Giugno 1999 - Ishikawa Prefecture (Shika Nuclear Power Plant), Giappone: malfunzionamento delle barre di controlo

29 Maggio 1999 - Rousse, Bulgaria: Customs officials arrested a man trying to smuggle HEU (10 g) at the Rousse customs border check point.

16 Giugno 1999 -Russia, centrale di Seversk: 2 contaminati per fuga radioattiva.

Giugno 1999 - Prefettura di Ishikawa, Giappone. Malfunzionamento controllo barre. Per ridurre l'attività del reattore occorreva inserire una barra di controllo, invece per un malfunzionamento ne vennerro estratte tre. Per un quarto d'ora il reattore rimase in stato altamente critico, sfiorando il rischio di un melt-down. L'incidente venne tenuto segreto e fu scoperto per caso solo otto anni dopo, nel marzo 2007. Operators attempting to insert one control rod during an inspection neglected procedure and instead withdrew three causing a 15 minute uncontrolled sustained reaction at the number 1 reactor of Shika Nuclear Power Plant. The Hokuriku Electric Company who owned the reactor did not report this incident and falsified records, covering it up until March, 2007.

23 Giugno 1999 -Ucraina, centrale di Rivno: principio incendio.

4 Luglio 1999 -Ucraina, centrale di Zaporozhie (Ucraina): bloccato un reattore per precauzione.

12 Luglio 1999 - Giappone, centrale Tsuruga: bloccato reattore per una perdita acqua.

17 Luglio 1999 - Ucraina, centrale di Chernobyl: 3 operai contaminati.

4 Agosto 1999 - Houston, Texas, USA: incidente radioterapico The wrong patient received a dose of radioactive iodine-131, causing thyroid injury. Two middle-aged female Asian patients were awaiting radiotherapy procedures. The one scheduled for iodine-131 treatment left the waiting area. The radiotherapy technologist asked the other patient to confirm her name, birth date, and type of treatment, to which the patient (not English proficient) replied "yes". The treatment was incorrectly administered to her, resulting in a 22,000 rad dose to the thyroid, an assessed 85% chance of losing thyroid function, and a requirement for indefinite thyroid hormone replacement.

19 Agosto 1999 - United States: Andris Blakis spread phosphorous-32 on the chair of a co-worker in Los Angeles, CA, causing a dose to the co-worker of a few tenths of a rem; Blakis was arrested and charged.41
6-8 Jun 2000: Japan--Tsugio Uchinishi sent letters laced with monazite (a thorium-containing mineral) to 10 government offices in Tokyo in protest of illegal uranium exports to North Korea

13 Settembre 1999 - Grozny, Russia: tentato furto di fonti Six individuals attempted to steal radioactive material from a chemical factory in Grozny. They opened a container and removed several of nine 12-cm rods of cobalt-60, each one 27,000 curies. One individual handled a source for a few minutes and reportedly died 30 minutes later. Of the others, two died of radiation exposure and three suffered radiation injury.

30 Settembre 1999 - Tokaimura (Giappone) (scala Ines 4). Un incidente in una fabbrica di combustibile nucleare attiva una reazione a catena incontrollata. Viene accertato che si tratta di un errore umano: due operai hanno trattato materiali radioattivi in contenitori non idonei. Tre persone muoiono all'istante, mentre altre 439, di cui 119 in modo grave, vengono esposte alle radiazioni. Vengono ricoverati in 600 ed evacuati 320.000 abitanti della zona. La mattina di giovedì le autorità rivelano che, a causa di una fuoriuscita d'uranio, si è innescata una fissione incontrollata nel nocciolo del reattore. Three operators were engaged in processes combining uranium oxide with nitric acid to produce a uranium-containing solution for shipment. The uranium involved was 18.8% U-235. The procedure used deviated from that licensed to the facility. In particular the uranium solution was being placed in a precipitation tank for dispensing into shipment containers, not the more narrow vessel (geometrically favorable to minimizing criticality risks) prescribed by license. At about 10:35 AM, while two workers were adding a seventh batch of uranium solution to the tank, a criticality excursion occurred. The two workers, along with a third worker nearby, observed a blue flash and fled the location; simultaneously, gamma-radiation detectors went off in the building and two adjacent buildings, prompting all workers to evacuate to a muster area. Workers were relocated following higher than background radiation readings. The two workers who had been pouring both began vomiting during transport to the hospital. The excursion continued for 20 hours (the facility did not have a procedure for dealing with criticality events) until outside experts were brought in to drain the tank, shortly after midnight. At 3:18 PM an evacuation of residents within 350 meters of the site had been ordered due to 5 rad/hr readings at the facility boundary; at 10:30 PM an advisory was issued to residents within a radius of 10 km to stay indoors. Of the three workers involved in the accident, the one pouring the solution received 600-1,000 rem and died 210 days later; the one holding the funnel received 1,600-2,000 rem and died 82 days later; and the one at a nearby desk received 100-450 rem and was hospitalized for three months. Both workers who died had received transplants of blood stem cells. The highest doses to neighboring residents were between 5 and 25 rem in the case of about 20 residents.

· Alle 10:30 scatta l'allarme, alcuni operai sono stati contaminati in modo molto grave.

· Alle 12:41 la polizia crea un "cordone" intorno alla centrale, si capisce che l'incidente sta diventando più grave del previsto.

· Alle 15:18 alcune famiglie residenti nei pressi della centrale vengono evacuate.

· Alle 21:00 si tiene una riunione di emergenza e il governo comprende a questo punto la gravità dell'incidente; oltre 300.000 persone invitate a stare in casa.

· Alle 24:00 la radioattività attorno e dentro all'impianto raggiunge livelli tra le 10 e le 20.000 volte superiori alla norma.

· Alle 2:30 del giorno seguente 18 operai tecnici nell'impianto accettano una missione da veri "kamikaze", devono entrare nell'impianto per fermare la reazione a catena, ben consapevoli che, terminata la missione, non sarebbero più stati gli stessi.

· Alle 6:00 le autorità affermano che la radioattività è scesa a zero.

Dopo si accerterà che è stato un errore umano, i tecnici stavano infatti trasportando, all'interno dell'edificio dove si tratta l'uranio usato come combustibile nella vicina centrale nucleare, due barili di miscela di uranio- acido nitrico(che venivano miscelati a mano, con un rudimentale imbuto, di 30 kg ognuno: questi sono involontariamente caduti a terra e, essendosi miscelati, hanno innescato la reazione. I tecnici che hanno fermato la reazione sono all'ospedale in gravissime condizioni.

2 Ottobre 1999 - Ucraina, centrale di Khmelitskaya: blocco del reattore per malfunzionamento.

4 Ottobre 1999 - Wolsong (Corea del Sud). Una fuoriuscita di acqua pesante durante lavori di manutenzione della Centrale di Wolsong causa l'esposizione alle radiazioni di 22 operai impiegati presso l'impianto.

5 Ottobre 1999 - Centrale di Loviisa (Finlandia). Viene segnalata una perdita di idrogeno nell'impianto di Loviisa, sulla costa Finlandese. Secondo i tecnici della centrale c'è stato un pericolo di incendio e perdite. La situazione, secondo gli addetti, è rimasta comunque sotto controllo.

8 Ottobre 1999 - Rokkasho (Giappone). Una piccola quantità di materiale radioattivo fuoriesce da un deposito di scorie a Rokkasho, nella prefettura giapponese di Aomori. Le radiazioni provengono da due fusti arrivati dalla centrale nucleare di Ekushima.

20 Ottobre 1999 - Superphenix (Francia). Un incidente tecnico ritarda lo smantellamento del reattore a neutroni rapidi Superphenix di Creys-Malville (Isere), nel Sud-Ovest della Francia. Nell'operazione di scarico del reattore, un inconveniente tecnico a una puleggia per l'estrazione delle cartucce di combustibile arresta la fase di scarico del materiale radioattivo.

27 Ottobre 1999 - USA. "I bambini statunitensi residenti vicino le centrali nucleari di New York, New Jersey e Florida hanno nei denti un "radioisotopo" (lo stronzio 90) che li espone ad un rischio tumore molto alto". Così Ernest Sternglass, professore di radiologia all'università di Pittsburgh ha esordito nell'ultima conferenza stampa del progetto no-profit di "radioprotezione e salute pubblica". Lo sconcertante risultato è stato ottenuto dai ricercatori statunitensi che hanno analizzato 515 bambini residenti negli Stati di New York, New Jersey e Florida. I livelli di radioattività rilevata nei campioni, raccolti dal 1979 al 1992, erano molto vicini a quelli osservati a metà degli anni '50 quando Stati Uniti e Unione Sovietica, in piena guerra fredda, si dilettavano negli esperimenti con le armi invisibili. Secondo i responsabili del progetto i livelli di radioattività dovevano invece essere scesi intorno allo zero. "Se gli esperimenti nucleari sia di superficie, sia sotterranei sono effettivamente terminati, i primi sospetti cadono sui reattori nucleari e sui relativi incidenti", ha detto Sternglass, che ha aggiunto: "II mondo è troppo piccolo per gli incidenti nucleari". I responsabili del progetto attribuiscono parte di questa radioattività al disastro avvenuto nel 1979 a Three Mile Island e a quello di Chernobyl nel 1986. Ci sono documenti federali che testimoniano la fuga nucleare dal reattore di Suffolk (New York) nei primi anni '80.

17 Novembre 1999 - Gran Bretagna. Durante un volo d'addestramento, un caccia Tornado britannico si schianta nel Mare del Nord, a 800 metri da una centrale nucleare scozzese. Tuttavia, nel rapporto ufficiale, gli inglesi posizioneranno la distanza a 1.600 metri, facendola corrispondere alla distanza di sicurezza minima che gli aerei devono rispettare di fronte ad installazioni nucleari.

18 Novembre 1999 - Torness (Scozia). Un Tornado della Raf in esercitazione precipita in mare di fronte alla centrale nucleare di Torness in Scozia a meno di ottocento metri dall'impianto. Un grave incidente è sfiorato per un soffio.

13 Dicembre 1999 - Zaporozhe (Ucraina). Il primo dei sei reattori nucleari della centrale ucraina di Zaporozhe viene fermato per il malfunzionamento dei uno dei segnalatori di eccessiva pressione.

27 Dicembre 1999 - Blayais, Gironde, Francia. In seguito a tempesta vengono inondati i gruppi 1 e 2, e in misura minore i gruppi 3 e 4, della centrale di Blayais. Tre dei quattro reattori vengono fermati. Incidente di livello 2 della scala INES

2000 - Giappone: un uomo invia per protesta materiale uranifero a 10 uffici pubblici

2000 - Romania. Nove operai vengonoesposti ad alti livelli di radioattività di Cobalto 60 durante lo smantellamento di un impianto di fusione. La notizia è stata mantenuta segreta per sei mesi

2000 - Saluggia (Vercelli), Italia. La piena della Dora Baltea arriva fino a lambire il deposito Eurex, ovvero 200 metri cubi di scorie provenienti da laboratori di ricerca. Disse il Nobel Carlo Rubbia:"Sfiorata la catastrofe planetaria".

5 Gennaio 2000 - Blayais (Francia) (scala Ines 2). Una tempesta provoca un incidente alla centrale di Blayais, nella Gironda, dove due dei quattro reattori vengono fermati. L'acqua invade alcuni locali della centrale: danneggiati pompe e circuiti importanti.

24 Gennaio/20 Febbraio 2000 - Samut Prakarn, Tailandia: fonte compromessa radiografica A 425-curie cobalt-60 teletharapy source was sold in its housing as scrap metal to an individual in Samut Prakarn on 24 January and was temporarily stored at a residence. Several individuals further attempted to dismantle the housing unsuccessfully on 1 February, after which they took it to a junkyard. During transport, one indivual had the housing next to his leg. The source fell out at the junkyard during disassembly, causing exposure to workers. Two individuals started becoming ill that day. More workers became ill in mid-February and sought medical treatment, where physicians recognized radiation sickness and notified authorities. On 20 February the source was found and secured. Three individuals received doses of 200 rems, but two of them had severe radiation burns from localized exposures; another individual received 100 rems. Three individuals died: two junkyard employees (on 9 March and 18 March) and the husband of the junkyard owner (on 24 March).

27 Gennaio 2000 - Giappone. Un incidente ad una installazione per il riprocessamento dell'uranio in Giappone provoca livelli di radiazione 15 volte superiori alla norma in un raggio di circa 2 km.. Funzionari locali segnalano che almeno 21 persone sono state esposte alle radiazioni.

15 Febbraio 2000 - Buchanan, Indian Point, New York (USA). Una piccola quantità di vapore radioattivo fuoriesce dal reattore Indian Point 2 vicino alla cittadina di Buchanan sul fiume Hudson, località a circa 70 chilometri da New York. La perdita di gas radioattivo costringe la società che gestisce l'impianto a chiudere la centrale e a dichiarare lo stato di allerta. La perdita è di circa mezzo metro cubo di vapori radioattivi.

Maggio 2000 - Loa Alamos, USA. Un violento incendio supera la cinta del Laboratori Scientifici di Los Alamos (LASL) un complesso di 72 kmq specializzato in armi nucleari. L'incendio distrugge alcuni edifici storici ospitanti il Progetto Manhattan. L'incendio fu provocato da rangers forestali che pulivano il sottobosco nella Foresta Nazionale di Bandalier che circonda il laboratorio. Il portavoce di LASL dichiarò la presenza di quasi 3 tonnellate di plutonio. Era raccolto in recipienti in acciaio temperato in bunker in cemento armadio a prova d'incendio. L'incendio arrivò a meno di 27 metri dai contenitori. Al LASL era depositato anche del trizio.

5 Maggio/3 Luglio - 2000 - Mit Halfa, Egitto: fonte compromessa radiografica Casualties resulted from a radiography source unwitting brought into a household in Meet Halfa. Four sources used for checking pipes were lost in or near Abu Rawash in late April 2000; the workers who lost the sources searched unsuccessfully for them but did not report the loss to authorities. The family of Fadl Hassan Fadl found one source on 5 May and took it home, believing it to be precious metal. The rod contained 50 curies of iridium-192 (activity was reported as 31.5 curies on 5 May and 19.3 curies on 26 June). On 5 June Hassan Fadl Hassan, 9 years old, died of radiation sickness from a dose of 750 rad; the diagnosis was unclear at this point, but bone marrow failure and skin inflammations were evidence. On 12 June similar symptoms appeared in other family members who were hopitalized. The 61-year old father, Fadl Hassan Fadl, died on 16 June from a dose of 550 rad. Five others (Hassan's wife and four more of their children) suffered radiation sickness from doses between 300 and 400 rad, and 76 neighbors were treated for minor symptoms of blood changes. A total of 150 to 200 neighbors and friends each incurred estimated doses between 2.5 and 15 rem. Authorities began radiation surveys in the area on 25 June and recovered the source 26 June. Authorities found three more cylinders on 3 July (one in a warehouse), a day after arresting 4 for the loss of the cylinders.

12 Maggio 2000 - Sicilia, Italia. Il sottomarino inglese a propulsione nucleare "Tireless" subisce un'avaria al largo della Sicilia, ma prosegue il suo viaggio fino alla base di Gibilterra dove rimane bloccato. Dopo il segreto iniziale che ha accompagnato il Tireless nel suo viaggio, si è venuti a sapere che: 
- il sottomarino aveva rilasciato dell'acqua dal circuito di raffreddamento (e quindi radioattiva) in mare aperto; 
- la crepa nel circuito di raffreddamento non era di 2 mm., ma di vari centimetri; 
- la posizione della crepa non riguardava solo la tubatura secondaria che porta al pressurizzatore, ma 
coinvolgeva anche la tubatura principale del circuito di raffreddamento; 
- il difetto non era occasionale, ma strutturale, e quindi riguardava tutti i reattori montati a bordo di due classi 
di sottomarini inglesi (Trafalgar e Swiftsure).

Luglio 2000 - Richland, Washington, USA. Degli incendi lambiscono la discarica nucleare, molto radioattiva, "B/C" del sito di Hanford. Nessuna contaminazione aerea in quanto le scorie non sono in superficie, ma interrate.

Agosto 2000/24 Mar 2001 - Panama City, Panama: incidente radioterapico In August 2000 a modification to the computerized treatment planning system used to calculate shielding blocks during radiotherapy treatments. Unknown to the operators, the change resulted in overexposures to patients. Development of symptoms in treated patients led to discovery of the error on 24 March 2001, after 28 patients had been overexposed. Five patients died due to overexposure, one died in December 2000 of cancer unrelated to treatment, and two died by 2001 (one on 19 October 2000, 2 weeks after treatment) of undetermined causes. Of the radiation-related deaths, dates were as follows: 6 March, about 3 weeks after treatment; 28 March, about 7 weeks after treatment; 7 May, about 13 weeks after treatment; 19 May, about 10 weeks after treatment; 20 May, about 12 weeks after treatment; Most of the other 20 patients displayed injuries, mostly involving radiation injury to the bowel. By 23 May 2002, 17 patients had died, with 13 of the deaths caused by rectal complications and 14 deaths total linked to radiation exposure. By August 2003, 21 patients total had